THE SAD TALE OF SCIENTOLOGY A short history 1950-85 BY ERIC TOWNSEND THE SAD TALE OF SCIENTOLOGY THE SAD TALE OF SCIENTOLOGY A SHORT HISTORY 1950-85 BY ERIC TOWNSEND ANIMA PUBLISHING Copyright (c) 1985 Eric Townsend ISBN 0-9510471-0-8 *Published by Anima Publishing PO Box 10, *Printed in Great Britain by Bramhall, Deanprint Ltd.ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Stockport, Cheadle Heath Works, Cheshire SK7 2QF. Stockport, England* Cheshire SK3 0PR* INDEX *Chapter* *Page* *One* Why this Book was written 1 *Two* Dianetics - What's it all about? 3 *Three* ...and then there was Scientology 7 *Four* Ron Hubbard - his early life 11 *Five* The 1950's 15 *Six* Saint Hill 1959-66 23 *Seven* The Life on the Ocean Wave 27 *Eight* The Wasp Response 31 *Nine* Landfall 35 *Ten* Ron Hubbard's Legacy 41 *Eleven* The Church in the 70's 49 *Twelve* What price Happiness? 55 *Thirteen* The Events of 1982 59 *Fourteen* The Emergence of Independent Scientology 67 *Fifteen* The Church since 1983 73 *Sixteen* The Present and the Future 79 APPENDICES A 'The Road to Total Freedom' by Roy Wallis. 85 B Suggested reading and reference material. 87 C Contact Points. 89 D Open letter to the Church of Scientology. 90
Eric Townsend has developed his interest in the subjects of Scientology and Dianetics over the last ten years. During this time he has undertaken courses of study with the Church of Scientology, trained as an Auditor himself and has received auditing services from the Church.
He has combined his interest in Scientology with a busy business and academic career. He worked on research and marketing for a number of multi-nationals prior to starting his own successful business. In addition he has been active in representing trade associations, management representative bodies and developing youth training projects.
Eric Townsend was brought up as a Roman Catholic but rejected formal religious beliefs while at University. In middle life he found a need for greater spiritual awareness and fulfillment. After trying a number of avenues he found that Scientology most adequately filled this requirement.
While he has had immense spiritual and practical benefits from Scientology, he does not feel that it is the right way for everyone.
However, under-informed public opinion, plus sensationalist press coverage, means that many people may reject the subject on inadequate information.
His aim in writing this book is to provide a brief and balanced summary of how the subject has developed. By doing this in a way that tries to be fair to all sides, he hopes that the open-minded reader will have enough information to make a rational decision about whether to take their interest in the subject further or not.
CHAPTER ONE WHY THIS BOOK WAS WRITTEN
This book was written to help anyone who knows a little about Scientology and Dianetics and who wants to get some unbiased information which will enable them to make a better assessment of this controversial subject.
It is also intended to assist some of the many thousands of people who have at sometime taken an active interest in Dianetics or Scientology but found themselves unable to continue with it.
In many cases this will have been because of the mystifying things they found to be associated with the subject of Scientology or the way the Church operates. It may have been because they felt unable to proceed at their own speed and that the pressures exerted on them by officers of the Church caused them to give up the whole thing. It may just have been that press coverage and public opinion led them to feel that it would be a risky path for them to follow any further.
These reasons are very understandable and this book attempts to explain how they may have come about without attempting to belittle them. A third of a century has passed since Dianetics first appeared. We can now begin to make some assessment of the impact of the movement that grew out of it and which is said to be the fastest growing religion in the world.
Whether it deserves to be called a religion is an open question and the reasons why it so styles itself are to some extent dealt with in this book. It is worth mentioning at this stage however that our view of what constitutes a legitimate religion tends to revolve round the idea of a single supreme Divine Being. A large proportion of the world s population has religious beliefs in which there is no single God or in which the nature of the Supreme Being is not of paramount importance! Thus Scientology should not be disqualified as a religion just because it does not worship the Christian or Jewish God.
The other major difficulty that people have with Scientology is that it does not fit into established categories. In his book 'The Road to Total Freedom', Roy Wallis wrote in 1976 The boundaries between church, business science and to a lesser extent psychotherapy are relatively clearly drawn Scientology infringed these boundaries and behaved in ways characteristic of them all. Since it behaved as a business as well as a religion (and that of a singularly alien form), many argued that its religious claim must be purely 'a front', and Scientology 'a confidence trick'.' Nearly ten years on there has been no reduction in either the confusion or scepticism with which most people respond to the subject.
This book aims to give the factual background about how Scientology and Dianetics developed and how the Church has operated over the years.
It is not written as an attack on, or defence of, the Church. It is hoped that a simple statement of the main available facts about the history and the organisation of the Church will enable readers to arrive at their own assessment of this body.
It is written in language that the author hopes is comprehensible to the non-Scientologist. Where specialised terms are used, a definition has been included. If however readers come across any word they do not understand they should get it defined in a suitable dictionary before proceeding any further.
CHAPTER TWO DIANETICS - WHAT'S IT ALL ABOUT?
The contrast has often been remarked between the different responses that physical and mental illness get from the general public.
Injured people who can show blood and bandages receive immediate aid and support. In our society there is also a ready sympathy for cripples, the aged and the infirm. The existence of mental illness was largely ignored until this century. Even during the First World War, victims of shell shock and nervous breakdowns were regarded by many as malingerers.
Public awareness of mental illness has increased since then but it is still not a subject that gains ready sympathy or support. The largest group of patients in the care of the National Health Service are those suffering from mental illness and related conditions. Mental hospitals are still feared and joked about, and this sector of medicine still does poorly in the competition for financial and human resources. The most that can be said is that there is now some recognition that stress and nervous tension can cause temporary disability and that some medical conditions, such as allergies and migraine, are 'stress related'.
Over the last thirty years a number of fundamental discoveries have been made about how the human mind operates and why it causes so many people distress and unhappiness. This has happened against a background of popular belief that not much can be done about the mind.
The mainstream medical profession seems to have given up hope of finding cures for mental illness and places its reliance mainly on suppressant drugs.
The universities have largely intellectualised the subject of Psychology (study of the mind) and concentrated mainly on producing longer and more complicated descriptions of symptoms and conditions.
The human mind is not a subject which is easily confronted or talked about by the man or woman in the street. It may seem unrealistic to expect an open and sensible debate about theories of the mind in terms which can be understood by the lay person. Fortunately, we do not need to make the assessment in medical terms but in the more practical way of asking - 'Does it help people?'. If the new understanding of the way the mind works can lead to doing things that make people feel better, helps them to get rid of stress and tension and to control their body and environment better, then that is the only test that we need be concerned with.
This is the key test we should apply in looking at Dianetics. It was first released to the public in 1950 in the form of the book 'Dianetics - Modern Science and Mental Health' by L. Ron Hubbard. How it came to be written and what happened as a result of the remarkable interest it produced is covered later in this book.
The Theory section of 'Dianetics - MSMH' takes the position that the mind is a machine, just like your television or motor car. In the case of the mind, it is a processor of information for living. Because it is a machine it operates according to predictable patterns and, when working properly, serves us very well. Hubbard maintains that there are a limited number of things that cause it to go wrong and these can fairly easily be identified and remedied Basically, he makes the case that the mind is not an over complicated mechanism, even though it is extremely powerful and has enormous capacity.
In addition to providing a comparatively simple explanation of how the mind works, the book also contains a practical therapy section. This covers how a person may venture into the darker recesses of his mind and dig out the source of the mental aberrations that cause undesirable variations from usual thinking or behaviour. By finding and identifying the hidden causes of these things, the person would be cured of the compulsions and inhibitions that they had previously suffered from, Suddenly the possibility of removing the phobias, obsessions and feelings of guilt that many people are afflicated by seemed available. Experience can now be called on to show that the therapy method, and its later refinements, has actually produced this for many people. In fact it has produced improvements quite quickly in the majority of cases Some people who remember the 1940's and 1950's may recognise something of the principles outlined in the book as stemming from Sigmund Freud and his idea of the subconscious mind This said that those the mind found too unpleasant to face were suppressed below the level of normal recall into a subconscious region of the mind.
From here they could not be brought up in normal memory but were still able to influence the ideas and behaviour of the person. This is indeed the starting point of Hubbard's work. What he provided, that was new, was a systematic and easily learnt method of enabling the person to dig out these suppressed memories. Until then the only help that had been was the psychoanalyst's couch, maybe combined with hypnosis, for the fortunate few.
It will have become apparent already that this therapy method was of a rather different nature than breathing exercises or twice daily meditation done by people on their own. The method involves the person under treatment receiving help from another person, called an Auditor The word is used in the original sense of a 'listener'. The Auditor or listen both listens and directs the attention of the person being treated.
So far, this is not so very different from the traditional picture we have of Psychoanalysis carried out by Freud and his pupils in Vienna before the First World War. These ideas had been developed and applied by mar in the twenties, thirties and forties. Many books were written on the subject and an indication of its widespread acceptance at the time can be seen in the Alfred Hitchcock thriller 'Spellbound', released in 1948.
What was different about Dianetics was that Hubbard claimed that the Auditor could train himself by reading the book. Provided he follow the procedure and rules in the book he could quite easily cure people their mental troubles and physically related ailments. As a development from this came the equally revolutionary idea that two people could together and audit each other in turn to achieve mental and physical gains.
CHAPTER THREE ...AND THEN THERE WAS SCIENTOLOGY!
As Dianetics was taken up with great enthusiasm around the world in the early fifties, the research and monitoring of results by Hubbard and others went on. The object was always to free the patient from the fixed mental conditions that many people were set in, and thereby remove their anxieties and those physical illnesses that had a mental origin.
The continuing research and development of Dianetics produced new techniques but also went deeper into the human mind. By 1952 it was evident that the starting question about mental causes for physical ailments had been broadened to a much bigger question and answer. That answer was the beginning of Scientology!
The action of searching through the mind for lost or hidden memories that caused the patient upset or distress was termed 'clearing' the mind.
At the end of the process the person whose mind contained no more aberrative material, namely memories capable of upsetting the person and making him behave irrationally, was termed a 'Clear'.
The concept of Clear is very important, not least because one of the many jargon terms to emerge is the description 'Pre-Clear' for someone who had not yet reached that happy state. The words are often shortened to PC.
For many people compulsions and irrational needs exert a major driving force on the way they live their lives and the goals they strive for.
When such a person's mind has been cleared of this aberrative material, the question can then be asked-What or Who drives the person now?
Thus in solving the problem of why many people behave or think irrationally a bigger problem emerges. Once the mind is clear and operating rationally, who controls it? To return to the analogy of the mind being a machine, if the motor car is freed of its faults and is working smoothly, who decides when and where it should go?
The answer to this question emerges as the spirit or soul. Hubbard used the word 'Thetan' to describe the essential being which each of us is. It follows then that each individual human being consists of three elements, a body, a mind, and a life-giving spirit.
While many people do have an innate conviction of the existence of the spirit or soul, it is not a popular belief for the second half of the twentieth century. Psychology is taken to mean the study of the mind The term Psyche is however derived from the Greek word that means Soul or Spirit. The substitution of Mind for Spirit came about around the middle of the last century. Among the possible reasons for this was that it permitted the study of human behaviour to free itself from the remaining vestiges of religious control. If philosophers of those times could claim there was no spirit or soul, then they could disregard criticism by the Churches.
With the emergence in Hubbard's work of a definite spiritual entity.
as distinct from the body and mind, we get the beginning of Scientology The shortest definitions of Scientology are the 'Science of Knowledge or 'Knowing about Knowing'. What is referred to as knowledge here is the awareness of the underlying truths of life and existence.
Since there has been a steady effort by man over many centuries to find the certain truths of life, it is understandable that yet another contender would be treated with some scepticism. Once again however we can see Hubbard's severely practical approach. He says that if the truths that emerge do not help people to live better and happier lives, there isn't much point in knowing them. He also says that for most people the surest way for them to prove whether ideas are valid is to apply them to their own lives by a gradual step-by step process.
As in Dianetics, there is at least as much emphasis on effective therapy as discussion of theory. Scientology therapy serves to let a person become more aware of his existence as a spiritual being and a little less cramped and constrained by the circumstances of his day to-day life. The gradual step-by-step approach enables a person who is burdened by many worries and seemingly intractable problems to win back control of his life.
The progress is usually for people first to see their problems as they are, then to realise that they can handle them, and finally to take the concrete action necessary to do so.
The mechanism by which Scientology brings about this effect is twofold. Both parts need to be undertaken to achieve the personal gains that the individual can make.
First there is the need to read and study the principles involved. Much medical therapy surrounds itself in mystique and discourages the patient from asking questions. Quite the reverse is true in Scientology, although the patient is only required to study and understand sufficient material for their next processing step.
Processing is the second part of Scientology therapy. Once again it involves working with another person, an Auditor. The Auditor takes the patient through a series of drills, usually in the form of questions. The person being Audited takes as long as he or she needs to find the answer to each question and then tells the Auditor.
Because of its apparent simplicity it has been difficult for authoritative medical bodies, or even sophisticated lay people, to believe that Scientology therapy could be so beneficial to an individual. The greatest benefits have often therefore come to those people with sufficient humility or courage to try it. By their own accounts and those of their friends and relatives, those people who have tried it have usually been able to change their own lives significantly for the better.
To summarise, Dianetics started off by examining how malfunctions of the mind and irrational thinking often caused physical ailments and distress. It came up with plausible reasons as to why these things happened, and evolved a workable therapy to correct them. During the course of this work concrete evidence emerged of the existence of the individual spirit or soul. Many cultures and religions have claimed that a Soul or spirit does exist in each of us, but could never prove it!
Having identified this individual spirit it was then found that its self awareness and abilities could be significantly enhanced by Scientology Auditing. This included enabling it to become more effective in its relationships with other people and coping with the day-to-day pressures of living. In fact increasing an individual's ability to deal with life was found to be a necessary precondition for the more advanced steps of spirit enhancement.
It is obvious that a person who may be having difficulty holding job, whose marriage is in jeopardy, who can't communicate with children, or who is in a financial mess, is not likely to be receptive to ideas of spiritual enhancement. It became apparent that physical improvement from Dianetics were also dependent on a person getting his life into so order. Dianetics could not usually help him much until he had been helped by Scientology to get in more control of his day-to day life an circumstances.
Thus we end up with two closely related subjects which can best be defined as follows.
DIANETICS derived from the Greek words for through (DIA) an, soul (NOUS). This addresses the body and deals with its problem concerning behaviour and psychosomatic illnesses, which are seen a largely created by mental states,
SCIENTOLOGY derived from Latin for to know (SCIO) and the Greek for inward thought or reason ( LOGOS). This is a philosophy of the spirit which. through applying its principles and practices, can bring about desirable changes in the conditions of life.
CHAPTER FOUR RON HUBBARD - HIS EARLY LIFE
In considering the Founder of Dianetics and Scientology, we are faced with many problems. At the time of writing we are not even sure if Ron Hubbard is alive or dead.
The events of his early life have frequently been written up by the Church in the short biographical notes included in Church publications.
Evidence is now emerging however that a number of the traditional claims about his early life seem to have little basis in truth. This new data will have a disturbing effect on many people who believed that the man himself was perfect even if the acts of his creation, the Church of Scientology, were sometimes dubious,
A fully researched and balanced biography will no doubt emerge in due course. In the meantime we must be careful not to over-react. It is intended here to concentrate on the work he did and its potential usefulness to our society rather than an assessment of Hubbard as a person. It will still be useful to review the official version of Hubbard's early life, based mostly on his own and the Church's statements about his activities.
Lafayette Ron Hubbard was born in Tilden, Nebraska in 1911. His name was shortened for popular consumption to L. Ron Hubbard but among his many enthusiastic followers he is known as 'Ron' or LRH.
He was the son on a US Naval Officer and experienced a nomadic youth. The frequent moves resulted in his education being fragmented.
He became interested by the religious philosophies of the Far East which he encountered when he visited there in his late teens.
Ron Hubbard spent some time in the early thirties at George Washington University Engineering School but did not complete his studies there. He developed a wide range of interests, including exploring, flying, photography and film making. He is said to have supported himself by writing about these and other subjects. During the 1930's he seems to have spent his life as an unashamed adventurer, in the sense of someone seeking out adventure.
He gradually gained reputation and material success as a writer of detective stories, westerns and mysteries for popular magazines. He also spent some time in Hollywood and reputedly wrote some film scripts.
Towards the end of this period in 1938 he started to gain a reputation - a Science Fiction writer.
During the war he held a commission in the US Navy. During this period he is said to have started to formulate his ideas on the human mind and behaviour by observing the effects of wartime stress on service personnel. Towards the end of the war he spent some time in military hospital and started to apply his early Dianetic techniques to the rehabilitation of injured servicemen and ex-prisoners of war. The claims that Hubbard was decorated as a war hero and that he used his therapy methods to effect a miracle cure on himself are among those now being disputed.
In his taped lecture on The Origins of Scientology and Dianetics Ron Hubbard states what he did on demobilisation. He had some money accumulating in a savings account from a film script he had written before the war. He took this money and bought a boat which he took cruising n the Caribbean until the money ran out. He then returned to the United States and set himself up as a practising therapist using the elements of Dianetics that he had developed during the war. During these years his practice and reputation expanded as he continued to develop and refine his techniques. He wrote up the elements of Dianetics in 1948, later published as The Original Thesis. It was not possible to find a publisher at the time and attempts to get articles on the subject published in the medical or psychiatric journals also failed.
During this time Hubbard continued to write Science Fiction and participated in the 1940's boom, subsequently known as 'The Golden Age of Science Fiction'. Many of these works still exist and his reputation in this field is still remembered by Science Fiction enthusiasts.
In 1950 Ron Hubbard decided to write a popular handbook on Dianetic theory and therapy, and used his Science Fiction contacts to get it published. What emerged was 'Dianetics Modern Science of Mental Health'. It was a 400 page book divided into three sections. The first covered the fundamental philosophy, the second a theory of Dianetics and finally a practical therapy section.
The form of presentation contrasted strongly with the closely qualified academic style in which ideas on medical science are usually presented.
Hubbard wrote the book with characteristic colourful phrasing and humorous asides. It is unfortunately marred by some extravagant claims for unvarying effectiveness, which were not subsequently substantiated.
The book does however outline a theory and methodology which many found plausible, and were willing to try.
Groups of people eager to become practitioners of Dianetics sprang up in self-help groups throughout the United States and abroad. Ron Hubbard had said that Dianetic therapy techniques were accessible to all and that anyone with the common sense and guts to follow the instructions could help others. That is exactly what they did. Hubbard was now at the centre of a growing movement for self-improvement with an enormous number of requests for information and clarification being directed at him.
His answer was to produce more written material. Articles and books flowed from him in profusion. The first major follow-up to Dianetics Modern Science of Mental Health was Science of Survival (506 pages) in 1951. Then followed Advanced Procedures and Axioms, Evolution of a Science, Self Analysis, Handbook for Pre-Clears, plus a considerable number of taped lectures, some of which have since been published.
These later works on Dianetics were follow ups to the first book but they were much more technical. To be able to understand their meaning and implications fully one really had to have read and practised the theory contained in 'Dianetics - Modern Science of Mental Health.'
Meanwhile this stirring of ideas in the field of health care, and in particular mental health, had not gone unnoticed. Hubbard had expected that his ideas and therapies would be taken up by the medical establishment as a new way forward in the stultified area of mental health.
For various reasons this was not the response he got. Instead he met a broadly hostile closing of ranks. He must have been regarded from the outset as an unqualified interloper and the fact that he was also a noted Science Fiction writer cannot have improved the climate in which his ideas were received. In addition his evident impatience with the medical establishment probably also contributed to the reaction that Dianetics received.
CHAPTER FIVE THE 1950's
The official publications of the Church of Scientology give very little information about the early 1950's. I am reliant therefore on the extensive research work done on this period by Roy Wallis, for his book 'The Road to Total Freedom', published in 1976. My views on the usefulness of this book as a whole are given in Appendix A. The piecing together of the events of the early history of Dianetics and Scientology by Roy Wallis makes a useful contribution to understanding the form the movement took in its subsequent development.
As mentioned earlier, the publication of 'Dianetics - Modern Science and Mental Health' in 1950 caused a wave of interest around the United States, At the same time the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation was set-up in Elizabeth, New Jersey. This was close to Bay Head, New Jersey where Hubbard was living at the time. The Board of Directors of the Foundation included Hubbard's main two supporters at the time, John W. Campbell, editor of 'Astounding Science Fiction', and Joseph Winter, a medical doctor.
During 1950 demand grew for auditing facilities. Branches of the Foundation were established in Los Angeles, New York, Washington, Chicago and Honolulu. The main auditor training centres were in New Jersey and Los Angeles. Graduates of the four week course were certified as professional auditors.
In parallel with this, 'grass-roots' groups emerged who began training themselves and co-auditing. Some publicised their activities in the papers, some wrote to booksellers or the Foundation to make contact with others in their area interested in Dianetics. Extensive written communication took place between the groups and with the Foundation. This correspondence discussed case histories, new ideas on therapy and practice, and ideas on development of the movement. Groups started to produce their own newsletters and the Foundation produced its own journal. This included articles by Hubbard and other Foundation staff plus details of courses and books available,
There was no attempt however by the Foundation to control or structure the field groups. Auditors trained by the Foundation were left to apply their new skill how and where they wished. Some joined or led local groups, others set up as solo-practitioners.
None of the Board members of the Foundation were obviously good administrators and the central organisation was not well managed.
Hubbard himself was primarily concerned with research and lecturing at this time and was commuting between Los Angeles and New York. When he did get involved in administration, his authoritarian style antagonised other Board members.
Staff were recruited in large numbers and money was spent in the belief that the booming interest in Dianetics would continue. However by early 1951 income started to drop as the difficulties of getting predictable and reliable results from Dianetics started to become evident There had also been hostile criticism by doctors and psychiatrists who pigeon-holed Dianetics with psychoanalysis and hypnotism. In addition there was a lot of publicity given to Hubbard's divorce from his second wife, a supposed 'Clear'. The biggest disappointment for many however was that the attractive state of Clear was not achieved as easily or quickly as the book had promised.
Gradually Hubbard's colleagues resigned from the Board and the Foundation moved towards bankruptcy. Another supporter of Dianetics Don Purcell, stepped in to provide a financial injection to the Foundation He closed down the branches and relocated the Foundation in Wichita Kansas. Purcell became President of the Foundation with Hubbard as Chairman of the Board and Vice-President.
In early 1952 Purcell and Hubbard split up. It was agreed that Hubbard would resign, sell his stock for a nominal figure to Purcell and set up an independent Hubbard College in Wichita.
In April 1952 the Foundation finally went bankrupt. Its assets were bought by Purcell. These included the sole right to the name 'Hubbard Dianetic Foundation' and the publishing rights and copyrights on all the Foundation's publications, including 'Dianetics-Modern Science and Mental Health'.
Hubbard had meanwhile transplanted the Hubbard College to Phoenix Arizona, where he established Scientology. This seems to have been a conscious decision to abandon the Dianetics field for the moment.
The conflicts that had led to Hubbard's isolation, or isolation of himself, were fundamental. It was as if an isolated community living in an area surrounded by impenetrable mountains had built a flying machine which would let them contact surrounding valleys. The main inventor however now wanted to use this machine to go to the moon whereas his colleagues still wanted to fulfil the original objectives.
Most particularly Dr Winter wanted to get Dianetics accepted by the scientific and medical community. Hubbard's moves towards the spiritual and the apparently occult were felt to be making this goal unachievable.
Purcell wanted a sound commercial operation which could provide the backing and support that the popular movement needed. Hubbards impetuous and grandiose money raising schemes, such as 'Allied Scientists of the World', were out of keeping with the respectable image he wanted Hubbard s first major supporter, John Campbell, withdrew in reaction to Hubbard s authoritarian style and his unwillingness to accept the intellectual contributions of others.
Meanwhile the field groups were also in a state of discord. These groups were jealous of their independence They did not all agree that Hubbard needed to be the head of the movement. While acknowledging his initial breakthrough, some felt that further refinement and development could equally well be done by others. Some felt that other techniques could be incorporated into Dianetics and others felt that several different therapy methods could emerge An indication of the vigour of the controversy was the evolution of a whole range of magazines, including The Dianews. Dianotes, and Dianetics Today.
In addition to mainstream Dianetics, other breakaway methodologies appeared led by individuals who hoped to pick up the mantle that Hubbard had droPped as leader of Dianetics Among these were Ron Howes and the Institute of Humanics, A. L. Kitselman with the E-Therapy, and Art Coulter with Synergetics.
In the UK the development of Dianetics followed a similar pattern to the early days in the United States. The loose coordinating body was the British Dianetic Association which was succeeded by the Dianetic Association Ltd. Their main function was to get hold of American material and distribute it in the UK. In 1952 the Dianetic Association Ltd was absorbed by the Dianetic Federation of Great Britain. Like its American counterpart it exercised virtually no control over the multitude of field groups and auditors. Very few of these auditors had been to the United States to be trained at the Foundation.
From his new base in Phoenix, Hubbard started to establish the new subject of Scientology. As explained earlier this grew out of the further development work he did on Dianetics with more advanced auditing procedures.
By 1952 he had moved beyond the exclusive area of the human mind to dealing with its 'animator'. This animator is the concept of a spiritual being that determines the action of the mind and body. In our normal experience our spiritual awareness becomes largely obscured by the physical and mental inefficiencies that we pick up during our growth to adulthood. With the development of techniques for increasing our awareness of existing as a spiritual being, separate from our body and mind, Scientology was born.
Hubbard established the Hubbard's orbit as the HAS, in Phoenix. He began Scientology auditing and training of interested members of the Dianetics community there. He also started a periodical called the Journal of Scientology.
From this new platform he began to attack Purcell's Dianetic Foundation in Wichita, claiming that it was profiteering from Dianetics.
He made a strong appeal to Dianetics followers which produced many converts to Scientology.
As the HAS grew it changed its name to Hubbard Association of Scientologists International (HASI) and became tougher in the control it exerted over its members using Scientology techniques. Hubbard was obviously determined to avoid a repeat of the uncontrolled evolution of field auditors and groups that had happened with Dianetics. Only organisations affiliated to the HAS were permitted to have and use Scientology materials. To qualify as an affiliated group all members had to be individual members of the HASI and monthly reports of activities were required. Groups that did not toe the line had their certificates withdrawn and became ineligible for new Scientology materials.
Independent practitioners were similarly controlled and these now included quite a few former Dianetics practitioners who were drawn back into to be individual members of the HASI and monthly reports of activities were required. Groups that did not toe the line had their certificates withdrawn and became ineligible for new Scientology materials.
Independent practitioners were similarly controlled and these now included quite a few former Dianetics practitioners who were drawn back into
The Wichita Foundation had not thrived since Hubbard's departure and was having to contend with law suits from Hubbard. In late 1954 Purcell decided he would give up Dianetics and he would switch his support to the breakaway group, Synergetics. He agreed to return the Dianetic copyrights and publishing rights to Hubbard.
The HASI now had full control of both Scientology and Dianetics materials and could set about ending fringe practices that used Dianetics in combination with other therapies. Those groups and magazines which did not come back to Hubbard and HASI gradually joined the breakaway groups, Humanics and Synergetics, or extended their interests into other practices such as Yoga, Hypnotism and Numerology.
In Britain the Dianetic Federation was apprehensive of the effect of a subsidiary HAS being founded as it would reduce the autonomy of the Dianetic Groups. Hubbard made it clear that he regarded the failure of the earlier Dianetic Foundations as due to him not having complete control.
In the end he by-passed the leadership of the Federation and set-up a HAS in London, It made a broad appeal to the field groups and support moved quickly over to it once Hubbard started to visit the UK. As a result virtually all the independent Dianetics groups in the UK had disappeared by 1955.
Despite the turmoil and problems of these times, Hubbard continued researching and lecturing on a massive scale. There are several hundred taped lectures from the period. The three most famous of these are available in book form as Notes on the Lectures (1951). The Philadelphia Doctorate Course delivered in Philadelphia in 1952 and the Phoenix lectures delivered in that City in 1954. There are in addition tapes of introductory lectures and radio broadcasts that he did all over the US during the early 50's.
The other thread in Hubbard's work was the production of material to introduce new people to the subject. In 1953 the following books were published: 'This is Scientology The Science of Certainty'; 'Introduction to Scientology' and 'Self Analysis in Scientology'. Among the books published in 1954 were: 'Group Auditors Handbook' (Vols I & II) and 'Dianetics 55'. In 1955 there followed nine books including 'Scientology- Its contribution to knowledge: The Elementary Scientology Series' and 'The Creation of Human Ability'. In 1956 there were again many advanced technical publications, usually presented in the form of 'Professional Auditors Bulletins and also Scientology The Fundamentals of Thought';
'Creative Learning - A Scientological Experiment in Schools' and 'The Problems of Work'. By the late 50's the flow of books reduced to three or four a year and these were mostly more technically specialised for professional auditors.
The flow of lectures continued unabated until 1960. Prior to 1953 Ron Hubbard had moved around the country to deliver them. Now the large numbers of people wanting to learn the techniques of Dianetics an.
Scientology were more ready to come to him. At first this was to Phoenix Arizona, but after the setting up of the Church in Washington DC in 1955 he centred his activities there. In February 1954 the first religious flavour appeared with founding of the first Church of Scientology, in Los Angeles n 1955 Churches were founded in New York and Washington DC interestingly a Church was also founded in Auckland, New Zealand in 1954
In the later 50's Hubbard made more visits to Britain and in the Spring of 1959 purchased Saint Hill Manor, in Sussex. This was to become h home and the centre of Scientology operations for the next few years.
The most obvious question that springs from this period is why did the Scientology movement take on the title of a church and thus a religion?
Also why did Ron Hubbard move from the United States to the UK in 1959?
A significant paragraph appears in the section on Ron Hubbard's life history in the Church's book 'What is Scientology'. This says that in the early 50's the US government tried to monopolise his researches to use them for mind control of people. It then says that after the government failed to get Hubbard's agreement to this, it embarked on a campaign of covert attacks on his work. This is the earliest reference In the Church's published history to deliberate discrimination and attacks by government- backed agencies. Most frequently referred to are the efforts of the American Psychiatry Association to discredit the movement. This belief in a campaign of covert attacks has grown into massive paranoia within the Church over the years.
It could be that these real or imagined pressures were more important in deciding to become a Church rather than a belief that Scientology needed to be a Church to be effective in doing its job of Improving the mental and spiritual health of people.
In the United States, and all English-speaking countries, the liberty and tolerance extended to religions is obviously much greater than to para- medical practices. There were many practical advantages therefOre in repackaging Scientology and Dianetics as a religion and therefore a Church. The individual Churches in each State applied for and got exemption from Federal Taxes, as they were entitled to do as religious and educational bodies
In 1958 the Federal Tax agency started to change its view and began to withdraw the tax exempt status from some of the Churches. This led to a series of extended legal battles with the US Inland Revenue Service.
It was not until 1975 that the Church of Washington regained full tax exempt status. During that year most of the other Churches also regained tax exemption. It would appear however that not all of the Churches within the United States did regain exemption.
This was the first of many aggravating governmental actions against Scientology in the United States, and later in other countries of the world.
Whether the actions were justifiable for the public good then or now is difficult for us to pass judgement on. What we can see is that the legacy of these governmental actions is considerable paranoia within the Church, and also on the part of Ron Hubbard himself.
Whatever views we may have on the right of government and its agencies to make life difficult for fringe groups, the actions of the US Internal Revenue Service and later the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not halt the growth of Scientology They can be seen now as no more than irritating side issues in relation to the continuing expansion of the movement during the fifties. Getting into the subject of Scientology requires some intelligence and a fair level of education In addition the promise to the individual of the benefits of increased awareness and abilities is quite specific. If these promises were being fulfilled to some degree, then the Church's nationwide continuing growth during this period could not have happened.
By the end of the fifties Scientology had established a network Churches throughout the United States. Churches had also been set u in New Zealand and South Africa. There were in addition groups active in many other places and Scientology was already well on the way t becoming a world movement-
With the official attitude to Scientology in the United States being somewhat hostile, it seems probable that Hubbard considered it better to set up his Worldwide headquarters somewhere with a freer and more benign climate in which to operate. The peace of the Sussex countryside and the strong following Scientology had already gained in Britain probably accounts for his choice of Saint Hill Manor, East Grinstead.
CHAPTER SIX SAINT HILL 1959-66
During the six years that Hubbard lived at Saint Hill Manor, East Grinstead, he was engaged on several major projects.
There was however a minor project which drew disproportionate attention and lives on in a curious way. As part of his research into the nature and behaviour of different life forms, he undertook son experiments with tomato plants. This included taking readings of the state of well-being on the E-meter The E-meter (E is for Electro- psychometry) was developed in the 50 s as a guide to the Auditor to tell him which of the items the PC mentions is charged and to assist the Auditor in running-out this item without the PC being overwhelmed. The PC holds two electrodes (usually tin cans), one in each hand. An undetectably low electrical charge passes through the PC. Contact wit an item that contains emotional charge disturbs the current and registers on the meter.
As a result of talking to these tomato plants and checking their responses on the meter, Hubbard conducted a form of auditing on them.
The plants are said to have responded by growing to unusual size and giving abundant crops of tomatoes. Although it is now more readily believed that plants respond to being talked to, when this work was published it was greeted with derision. As a result some of the local people living around East Grinstead have been known to describe Scientologists as Tomato Worshippers.
During this period international expansion of Scientology was continuing. Churches, more usually known as Organisations and referred to as 'Orgs', were opened in Paris, London, Capetown, Port Elizabeth, Detroit, Seattle and Hawai. Hubbard's clear intention was to set up a centre for running Scientology worldwide at Saint Hill. In addition to the Management Centre, an International Council for Dianetics and Scientology was set-up there in 1959.
It may have been at this time that the goal of the movement was established. This is to 'Clear the Planet'. The word Clear is used in the sense that an individual can be cleared' of his irrational reactions an impulses. It is these irrational responses that are seen as the source r criminal and other acts harmful to oneself or society. A cleared Planet would be one where all the population was free to behave rationally and society was free of all anti-social behaviour. Moving towards this goal was seen as not only being desirable for individual happiness and well-being but also as the best preventative action against a degenerating society and even nuclear war.
Saint Hill became an international centre in another sense. People came from all over the world to learn the theory and practice of Dianetics and Scientology techniques. The enormous quantity of discoveries and therapies were at this time being streamlined into a workable system which would enable an auditor to process individuals from whatever physical and mental state they found them in, by gradual steps of improved awareness and ability, to Clear and beyond.
The priority given to this work of systematisation was to ensure that every step was proven and would produce predictable results. This introduction of certainty of benefit to the broad area of psychotherapy led to the term 'technology' being applied to methods and processes used.
So emphatic was Hubbard that the proven workable processes should be used in an unvarying manner that the term 'Standard Tech' was coined and became the motto on the Auditors' badge and certificates.
The out-buildings at Saint Hill Manor were converted into classrooms and auditing rooms. One of the most memorable legacies of this period is the special course which Ron Hubbard assembled, known as the Saint Hill Special Briefing Course, which is still delivered there today.
The methods by which a person studies a subject effectively and efficiently came under Ron Hubbard's scrutiny at this time. The principles evolved were very practical and ensured that students on these courses understood and could apply the materials they were working on, before they moved on to the next stage.
So effective were these methods that people on courses at Saint Hill could not believe how easy it became to study. This was in sharp contrast to most people's experience at school or college. Another feature was how enjoyable it was to study. People exhibited great enthusiasm to study and at the end of set study periods shower! little inclination to finish promptly.
In parallel to making Saint Hill the most advanced study centre of Dianetics and Scientology in the world, Hubbard also set up and ran a processing and training centre or Org, for the local population. This was to be the prototype of the way Church Orgs were to be run throughout the world.
In 1982 a booklet called 'How Big was Old Saint Hill' was published.
This gives some idea of how successfully this Org operated. The data we have in the booklet runs from the beginning of 1965 to September 1967 ,The start of the operation coincides with a reliable method of achieving the state of Clear. Prior to that time it had been a pretty hit and miss process and most of the people who had achieved the state had beer cleared personally by Ron Hubbard. Now a programme of steps was available which comparatively new auditors, not necessarily Clear themselves, could be taught to deliver.
The operation started with less than six staff and during its first quarter was turning over an average of L1,490 per week (at 1965 values). Growth in turnover and staff was very rapid. Within six months turnover had reached an average of L4,521 per week and staff were approaching the 200 mark. Over the next 12 months staff numbers levelled off at 250 but turnover reached a weekly average of L9,532. By the end of the final year for which we have figures average weekly turnover had reached L19,261.
Much more important than turnover figures were the actual products of the activity. Clears were being mass produced. At its peak Saint Hill produced 21 Clears in one week, There was a delivery staff of 50 Auditors.
Twelve of these were 'Review Auditors' whose job it was to sort out any case that got bogged down. There were 200 people training to be auditors plus another 100 studying other things. The number of students completing courses in any one week averaged between 40 and 50.
This enormous production operation needed a very well-oiled System to operate. Ron Hubbard evolved a structure of seven separate Departments or Divisions to perform all the f unctions of delivering, training, quality control, dissemination to new people, internal and external communication, staffing, staff training, finance and premises. The structure to do this was laid out on an organisation chant, known as an 'Org Board', and it is still used in the running of the Church Orgs today.
For those fortunate enough to have been there at the time it must have seemed like the dawn of a Golden Age. Some of the letters published in the booklet 'How big was Old Saint Hill' give the flavour very clearly.
People crowded in to be audited and trained on the new processes that Hubbard was developing. These were what were termed Power Processing and were a Scientology method of achieving the state of Clear. The first Clears were achieved by this method in early 1966 and then started to come through in increasing numbers after that.
During this time of growth of the local Saint Hill Org, Hubbard was carefully observing the working of the 'organisation' and how it could be improved. He applied elementary 'work study' principles to it just as if it was a factory or car repair garage. From this emerged a whole series of written procedures, known as Administrative Bulletins, which have since been bound into seven volumes and are still used extensively in the operating of Church Orgs today. These Administrative procedures became known as Admin. Tech. They were mimeographed in green ink and are often referred to as 'Green on White'.
A selection from all the volumes was made to produce the organisation Executive Course. A businessman who today sat down and absorbed the principles and practice expounded in that course, and then applied them in his own business, could gain considerable benefits, even if only in reducing the stress and strain he subjects himself to.
The attention that Hubbard devoted to systematising administration shows the lesson he had learned from the early chaotic days of Dianetics.
As Scientology became a world movement, the danger of it fragmenting or getting into financial difficulties were that much greater. Until then Ron Hubbard s personal authority held things together, but that could not be relied on forever.
If growth was to continue, it needed to be on the basis of a secure organisational structure. Many of the people coming into the movement had a strong desire to help others and change the world. The experience of the fifties showed that these qualities were not usually combined with good organisational or financial management skill. The method of organisation he evolved was a self-controlling bureaucracy that could produce a minimum standard of efficiency with whatever resources were available to it.
More important than efficiency was the need to keep the auditing technology 'standard'. The bureaucratic structure would ensure that standard processing was delivered in all the Church Orgs and that individual variations or other therapies were not permitted to adulterate proven Scientology and Dianetic processes.
In 1965 a further step towards depersonalising control was taken This was with the establishment of the post of Guardian. The Guardian and his staff were responsible for protecting the technology of Scientology from adulteration issuing and enforcing policy within the Church and defending the Church from attack.
On 1st September 1966 Hubbard resigned from the post of Executive Director and the Board of Directors of the Church and took the title Founder. The reason given is that he wished to continue his writing and research. He had already that year released the auditing procedures for the first two levels above Clear. These were known as OT (Operating Thetan) I and II. Through the late 60's the other OT levels followed up to OT VII which was released in September 1970.
CHAPTER SEVEN THE LIFE ON THE OCEAN WAVE
Ron Hubbard had always had a strong affinity with the sea. Some of his pre-war exploring had been of coastal waters and he was in the Navy during the war. After his recovery from injuries he states he spent a period cruising in the West Indies. It was perhaps natural, after sixteen hectic years establishing Dianetics and Scientology, that he should return to the sea.
After relinquishing the post of Executive Director in 1966 he acquired a sailing yacht. This may have been intended originally for his personal use but then came the idea of using ships as a training environment. Ships of any size need crews and it was a natural step to use young Scientologists as crew members. Training in the technical skills of auditing and organisation and the toughening up to be gained from shipboard discipline were considered to be a happy combination.
During the course of 1967 two other vessels were acquired and constituted a small fleet. The flagship was a converted Channel ferry called the Royal Scotsman and renamed the Apollo. The other two vessels were smaller, the Athena and Diana, and were used for special assignments.
Over the years a succession of enthusiastic young Scientologists.
spent training periods on the ships. The appeal must have been considerable to anyone who had reached some level of understanding of what Dianetics and Scientology could supposedly do for the individual and mankind. Who could resist the combination of extended cruising in the Mediterranean and the chance to get co-auditing, that is exchange auditing with a fellow trainee auditor, under the best technical supervision available? In addition there was the chance to be near the discoverer and developer of Scientology. Hubbard was always a man of enormous charisma and charm, to those who were not overwhelmed by his somewhat flamboyant style.
Thus we have the emergence of the 'Sea Organisation'. Hubbard no had enough experience of running things to know that the only way that the ships could operate effectively was if they were run on a similar pattern to the very successful delivery Centre he had evolved at Saint Hill.
Lectures and Bulletins emerged about training new crew intakes r procedures and even such things as How to Keep Watches. Hubbard himself had always liked to dress up and look the part, and the role of Naval Commodore suited him admirably. Naval Uniforms and ranks were evolved. Much of the maritime terminology which was adopted in the administration of the shipboard organisation lives on in the Church Orgs today, even though the ships have long since gone.
We can see here the emergence of an elite corps. The Sea Organisation (Sea Org) members were encouraged to feel that they had a particular role and right to claim pre-eminence in the mission to improve the world. The Sea Organisation members of today still wear the naval uniform and pledge themselves to an open-ended contract to work for the goals of Scientology.
Despite his claim to have given up direct management of the Church.
Hubbard was not without considerable influence on the running of the Church. Looking back at this period of Scientology one is reminded of the practice of Japanese Emperors in the middle ages of retiring to a monastery. Unfortunately, they did not relinquish all their influence and kept a court around them and a finger in the pie of government. This obviously made life a little difficult for the new Emperor trying to establish himself. A similar situation could be said to have come about within the Church, assuming that Hubbard had genuinely passed running of the Church to others at all.
Ron Hubbard was never one to stop thinking and improving. Although he spent much of his time on developing the OT levels, he wrote a lot about running Orgs and Staff Management. It was also during this time that he did a major up-date on Dianetics, the first since he had started on the development of Scientology in the early 50's. This format of the late sixties became known as Standard Dianetics. It was further up-dated in the late 70's to become New Era Dianetics (NED). During this time on the ships the first Advanced Org was established. This was a delivery centre for auditing the OT levels with the necessary support functions of Case Supervisors and Quality Control. From this first mobile advanced Org, teams were sent out to set up land based Advanced Orgs at Los Angeles, Edinburgh and Copenhagen in the 1968-69 period.
Thus we have some very valuable and positive benefits of this shipborne period. We have the development of the higher OT levels and their systematisation for standard delivery. Also we have the start of the Advanced Organisations which could deliver these services to the general public. These Advanced Orgs (AO's) are quite separate from the normal Orgs which deliver auditing up to Clear. There are today five Advanced Orgs run by the Church throughout the world.
On the other hand this period also produced the more doubtful benefit of the elite corps known as the Sea Org. The combination of youthful idealism and isolation from national boundaries in a floating world of their own could be expected to produce a distinctive attitude.
All young people want to do something useful to improve the world.
These youngsters would not have been able to believe their good luck in finding themselves in the vanguard of a movement that claimed to do that. Add to that the special language that has developed in Scientology as a necessary shorthand for quite complicated ideas; the necessary discipline of being on a ship; and the panoply of ranks and uniforms, and we can predict the emergence of a moral fervour in which the individual willingly pledges himself to the cause with selfless zeal.
Prior to the period on the ships Hubbard had developed and run the movement with whoever had responded to his ideas and been willing to help. This included people of all ages and social backgrounds. The Saint Hill booklet shows a genuine popular movement with people from all walks of life giving their time and enthusiastic support, but still combining this with living and working in the outside world.
With the establishment of the Sea Org, we can detect a change.
Recruitment would have been mostly from middle class youth, understandably disaffected by a world embroiled in a futile war in Vietnam.
The moral purpose offered by Scientology would have had great appeal in contrast with the amorality of the Sixties. The accent on 'tough' dedication to the purpose predictably led on to an almost competitive atmosphere of self-denial and aggressive demonstration of 'toughness'.
The arrival of a Sea Org mission was dreaded by the local Orgs. In their anxiety to demonstrate their dedication to the cause, these Sea Org members Sometimes did more harm than good. Their purpose was too obviously to find fault. One of the most feared criticisms was to be termed 'a Dilettante', indicating a lack of dedicated committment to the cause.
One interesting by product of the period of the ships was that there were a number of children on board. Contrary to popular belief, Scientology is protective of family bonds. The children of established marriages among crew members stayed with their parents. They were however in danger of becoming a nuisance on the ships. Ron Hubbard put them to work carrying messages and operating the internal communications on the ship. They were given the status of being 'his eyes and ears' Any insult to them was an insult to him. They were known as the Commodores Message Organisation, (CMO), and were to become an important influence later in the development of Church affairs.
CHAPTER EIGHT THE WASP* RESPONSE * WASP = White Anglo-Saxon Protestant.
As mentioned in an earlier chapter the Church was involved in extended dispute with the US Internal Revenue Service about its rig to tax exemptiOn as a Religion. This started in 1957 and was not resolved until 1975. An almost equally long running dispute was taking place with The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which is also a US Government Department This dispute concerned the use of the E-Meter in auditing and whether or not the meter is a medicinal tool. For an explanation the E-Meter see page 00.
In 1963 the FDA asked a court in Washington DC for a warrant to seize the E-Meters from the Washington Org because they were being used for medicinal purposes The warrant was granted and the Washington Church was raided by US Marshals who removed meters, books, tapes and files.
Four years later the case came to trial in the Washington Court and the Court ordered the materials to be destroyed. The Church appealed and won its case in the Court of Appeals in 1969. The FDA asked for a rehearing of the case and the case was heard again in 1973 in the Court of Appeals. The Court recognised the Church as a bona-fide Religion and ordered the return of the meters and other materials seized in the raid 10 years earlier.
In Australia there were several initiatives to ban Scientology by individual States, with the Federal Government only becoming involved at the end. In 1965 the State of Victoria passed the Psychological Practices Act which had the effect of prohibiting the practice of Scientology.
initiative for this had come from complaints by the Victoria He Authority to the Minister of Health which had led to a Board of Inquiry
In 1968 similar bills were passed in the parliaments of Western Australia and Southern Australia, The Church in all these states changed its name to the Church of New Faith and carried on its development.
With the change of the Australian Federal Government to Labour, a more liberal climate came about. In 1973 the Attorney General recognised the right of the Church to perform marriages. Slowly the practice of Scientology was rehabilitated in Australia and the prohibition Acts repealed. The Church was granted tax exemption and finally in 1975 all restrictions on the use of the word 'Scientology' in Australia were removed.
In New Zealand in 1968 a petition was presented to Parliament requesting an investigation into Scientology and requesting legislation against it. A commission was set up to conduct an enquiry in 1969. It recommended that no legislative action be taken.
In Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) a Control of Goods Act was introduced in 1968. This prohibited the importation of material that related to Scientology. In 1975 the Rhodesian Court of Appeals ruled this Act to be invalid, because Scientology was a bona-fide Religion.
South Africa followed the usual pattern of an official enquiry into Scientology in 1968. The report of this Enquiry was not accepted or rejected by the government but it was published for public information.
Subsequently the history of Church and government action in South Africa has centred on the Church's newspaper 'Peace and Freedom' and its efforts to expose conditions in South African mental institutions.
In Britain matters were handled in a less formal way. At about the same time as all the other initiatives, mid 1968, the Minister of Health stated that he was satisfied that Scientology was socially harmful. The Home Office introduced an Administrative Order banning Foreign nationals coming to Britain to study Scientology. Ron Hubbard himself had left Saint Hill in 1967 and was developing the Sea Org. He was however informed by the Home Office that his visa would not be renewed if he wished to come to Britain again.
An enquiry into Scientology was set-up in 1969. The recommend- dations of this were published in 1971. They were firstly that all psychotherapy should be organised as a regularised profession. Secondly the financial privileges of religions that did not have large followings and did not engage in overt acts of worship should be reviewed. The Commission did however say that people who were otherwise entitled to come to the UK, should not be prevented from studying Scientology if they wished to do so.
Nothing was done to implement the Commission recommendations, nor was the ban lifted. In 1973 a Dutch Scientologist declared at the port of entry that she was coming to study Scientology. She was refused entry and this test case was then referred to the European Court of Justice.
The ban was finally lifted in 1980 but probably less because of the European Court than the sustained lobbying of the Home Office by British AP's. The Church in the UK seems to have been effective over the years in steadily winning the support of some influential MP's.
Overall this adds up to a sad saga of heavy-handed government action throughout the White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant world. One is left with the question, why did it all happen?
The Church and Ron Hubbard would claim that it stemmed from the medical establishment. They would say that the medical psychiatric practitioners were incensed at this body of knowledge and its practices invading their privileged province.
It is true that in most of the countries instanced above, the initiative did come from the Ministry of Health. It was only after repackaging itself as a religion that Scientology was able to escape the efforts by the health lobby to restrain it.
This leads to another question. Why was it so difficult to get acceptance of its honest claims to be a religion? After all, religions have traditionally brought relief to mental stress and peace of mind, and this is exactly what Scientology and Dianetics claims to do. The reader will in the end have to try to answer this question according to his own beliefs.
The starting point is probably what Professor Joad of the Brains Trust would have said, 'It all depends what you mean by a Religion'.
It may be useful at this point to look at the role and motivation of the media in all this.
At the outset it must be obvious to anybody who has read this far that any fair minded discussion of Scientology and Dianetics must take time to agree to its starting point and tools of examination. In addition anyone who takes the claims of the subject at all seriously would appreciate that it relates to the most deeply held personal views about life and immortality.
Unfortunately we do not have, even in the best of our media, any forum for such an examination to be done justice. It may seem glib but regrettably appropriate to quote the maxim about our press 'They make the trivial important and the important trivial.' Unfortunately this description also seems to apply to the media of most countries of the Free World.
In facing a subject of the complexity of Scientology the media seems to have two goals. The first is to 'pigeon-hole' it. That is to find some category that it is similar to. In this case 'Cults or Sects' are a convenient category because they contain overtones of wrenching impressionable youngsters from their homes, 'mind manipulation' and even 'white slaver'.
The second goal would be to impute improper financial motives to the people founding or running the movement.
The Church claims that such destructive accusations indicate conspiracy with Government. Probably we don't need to look that deeply into their motives for discrediting anything new and strange. Their need is to sell newspapers. Cult religions, laced with financial exploitation, is good self-righteous headline copy which can be used again and again.
It might be said that the onus is on Scientology to prove that it is doing good work to the benefit of society. This is quite correct. The task is made much more difficult however by superficial media treatment of the subject. This treatment creates a negative image in the public mind and thus prevents open-minded examination and discussion.
A recent example of the British media in action on the subject took place in July 1984. A verdict in the High Court awarded custody of two children, from a marriage between two Scientologists, to the mother who had by then left the Church. In giving his judgment in open court, Mr.
Justice Latey strongly criticised the Church for its behaviour in attempting to dissuade the mother from pursuing her claims to the children. He also made it clear that he would deal with any further harassment or intimidation of the mother with the 'utmost severity'. He then went on to give his opinion of the Church and its practices and to criticise Hubbard for his false claims and financial motivation. His statements and criticism were presumably based on the evidence placed before him at the hearing.
The Daily Telegraph reported Mr. Latey's comments as such, in inverted commas, and also reported a statement by a representative of the Church made in its defence. The article was overall very critical of the Church but factual in that it reported what the Judge had said.
What was striking however was the response of the popular press.
The Daily Mail and The Daily Express in particular used the Judge's statement to launch into several pages of invective, mostly a rehash of previously used material about the Church and its activities. Here there was no attempt at balance. There was a strong self-righteous undertone and a strong 'we told you so' flavour to the copy.
While the popular press handling was perhaps predictable, the handling given by the BBC was not. In their 'World at One' programme the next day, they gave ten minutes to ill-informed comment on the subject, including a recording of part of an interview with Hubbard made about fifteen years earlier. In the interview a challenge is made by Hubbard to the interviewer to study the subject for himself. The challenge was ignored. At the end of the interview the listener's attention was directed by the Radio 4 commentator to the nature of Hubbard's laugh. This was actually instanced as an indication of his doubtful motives!
CHAPTER NINE LANDFALL
The sea-based operation continued until 1975. The first few years of the Sea Org were a time of great vigour and excitement. Hubbard was combining technical development of the OT Levels with refining the training programmes for Auditors.
Although from 1970 he did some valuable gap filling in further refining auditing routines, he concentrated more and more on developing techniques for managing and promoting the Church. From this time emerged the Flag Executive Briefing Course and the Administrative Series of Bulletins. Management of the Church did not just cover internal management but also dealt with the management of communication with the outside world. This included how to disseminate (spread the message of Scientology) and Public Relations. He also became involved photography, music and film making, as part of the promotional activity of the Church.
The Church itself was expanding all over the world. It is probably worth restating that Ron Hubbard claims that he was not at this time running the Church. Whatever the truth of this claim Hubbard obvious had immense influence on those whose job it was to run the Church an it must have been difficult for them not have been aware of Ron's keen scrutiny. His criticism of things that came to his attention as not being right could be extremely direct and withering.
From about 1970 it seems the sea-borne operation started to go sour.
The events of this period are reported in the Zegal tapes - see Appendix B and the warning included there. After the romantic idea of a fleet of ships spreading the religious philosophy of Scientology throughout the world, came the further idea of finding a safe place to set up a central point which could become the world focus for Scientology, its own Mecca or Jerusalem.
To do this would not just require a suitable location but also a degree of sympathy and support from the local government. Hopes ran high for a University of Philosophy on the island of Corfu. This project reportedly went wrong when unjustified claims of Greek government support were made. It is reported that the ships were ordered to leave Corfu harbour in March 1970.
The next prospect became Tangiers. Again negotiations broke down with the Moroccan government. The Scientology contingent and ships were apparently ordered out in December 1972.
It seems that good relations were then established with Portugal. A Telex office was set up in Lisbon and a lot of time was spent around the island of Maderia, which is a dependency of Portugal. It is reported that this prospect came to an end in a particularly unpleasant way in October 1974. The Flagship Apollo was stormed by an angry crowd on the quayside at Funchal, the capital of Maderia. The crowd believed that ship and Church were a cover operation for the CIA. Soon after this the Telex Office in Lisbon was raided by Portugese government officials.
The ships sailed for the American continent in late 1974 and spent the next year in the West Indies. This was not as pleasant as it sounds.
The small island governments of this area were probably aware of the reputation of these travelling Scientologists for trying to exercise influence over government officials. In more and more ports it was made clear that they were not welcome for extended periods.
This period must have been one of increasing frustration and disillusionment for Ron Hubbard. He was actually on the Apollo when the incident in Funchal harbour had taken place. It must have seemed to him that more and more doors were closing against his hopes of establishing Scientology as a reputable movement for world improvement.
In October 1975 the ships were reportedly docked in the Bahamas and the crews dispersed to several different locations in the United States.
For reasons that are unclear, Ron Hubbard and the Sea Organisation remembers were not expecting a warm welcome in the United States. The return was unobtrusive and from this time secrecy and security became high priority.
It was decided to set up a land base at Clearwater, Florida. This was to be the main management and training centre for the Church Worldwide.
It became known as Flag, after the flagship of the fleet Apollo.
This obvious transfer of power and authority from the ships to Flag, accompanied by the arrival of the person of Ron Hubbard, indicates that by this time control and management of the Church was back in his hands.
For reasons of secrecy the buildings at Clearwater were allegedly purchased by a cover corporation called the United Churches. To further preserve secrecy Ron Hubbard himself lived in an apartment separate from the main buildings.
At some time in 1976, the local press discovered that Ron Hubbard was in Florida and the real identity of the United Churches came out.
Hubbard himself went to Washington DC and laid low there for some months. He then moved with a small staff to an inconspicuous location on the West Coast of the United States, near Los Angeles.
For the next five years Ron Hubbard stayed mostly on the West Coast.
There seems to have been a lot of legal activity both against the Church and initiated by the Church. The background and justification for all this legal activity are far from clear. The priority however was to protect Ron Hubbard himself from being drawn into these legal battles. Hence the continuing restatement that he had not been involved in directly managing the Church since 1968, and keeping his whereabouts a secret.
His relocation did however coincide with a power-shift to the West Coast. An International Management Centre, known as 'Int', was set up in one of the many locations that the Church acquired in Southern California. Hubbard himself is reported to have moved around with a small retinue, living in a variety of ranches and apartments. We are told that during this time his health started to deteriorate. In 1978 he had some sort of stroke and in 1979 he had an operation. In both cases he reportedly had auditing and assists which helped his recovery.
People may wonder how someone with his technical knowledge on physical and mental health could get ill and have to have medical treatment. It is therefore worth remembering that he was probably a somewhat disappointed man. For nearly thirty years his ideas had bee subject to hostile attack. Although he had a dedicated following he had not achieved the large scale respectability and official recognition that he must have hoped for. By his own creed, ill health is usually a sign of failing to be self-determined in some aspect of one's own life.
Despite all the upheavals of this period Hubbard initiated and supervised continuing research for auditing the more advanced levels o spiritual awareness. From the mid-seventies we start to get some major new 'technical' developments. The term 'technical' is used by the Church to refer to anything to do with auditing processes and techniques. This is to distinguish it from bulletins or instructions of a management o promotional nature, which are referred to as 'administrative'. From some years previously, the levels of gain and ability available from auditing ha been organised as a progression known as 'The Bridge'. Each stage ha a definite completion point and predictable 'End Phenomena'. Different people would require differing programmes of processes to achieve the appropriate end phenomena of each stage. Both process delivery an auditor training levels were organised to coincide with these stages. The progression of stages would firstly get the individual's body into reasonably physical shape, including freeing it from the residual effects of drugs. The there are the Levels, a series of steps of mental rehabilitation leading to New Era Dianetics and then to the revised state of Clear. Clear was now seen as a staging post to achieving the state of a free spiritual being, known as an Operating Thetan or OT. This state is arrived at on completion of OT Levels I, II and III.
Prior to 1978, the highest previously released OT level had been OT VII, released in 1970. During this late 70's period Hubbard and his co- workers reviewed both the higher OT levels and a more streamlined method of running Dianetics. At first sight these would appear to be unrelated activities, at different ends of The Bridge. In fact the two were combined to produce a revised range of levels from OT IV to OT VII. These involved running the new form of Dianetics, New Era Dianetics, on people who were at OT III or above. This range of levels was known as NED for OT's, then shortened, inevitably, to NOTS.
To complete this last burst of activity we have a complete review of the lower part of the Bridge. This revised lower Bridge was released in 1981. It was so fundamental a change that it was unlikely that it would have been done without Ron Hubbard's involvement. It is actually necessary to state this because it seems likely that his increasing withdrawal and alleged failing health meant that much of this technical development work must have been done by other people.
The technical development team may have been located in Florida but the main link person with Ron Hubbard on this work was David Mayo.
He was later to become Case Supervisor International, the top post in the technical hierarchy and also Hubbard's personal auditor.
During this period a subtle change was taking place to Hubbard's personal image. Prior to 1975 he had been referred to widely by his christian name, or more deferentially as Mr. Hubbard. From the mid-seventies or so the term LRH was substituted and his presence and influence was referred to in less human everyday terms. The practice of other people issuing both administrative and technical instructions, using his name, started to happen.
This on occasion led to some ludicrous situations. The supposedly real LRH would send out bulletins to cancel or amend others which he complains were not actually written by him. The trouble was that there was no way of knowing which one was really written by him. More recently the revocation of previous instructions as not being written by Ron Hubbard himself, but 'by others', has been used to restyle the management of the Church.
The underlying reason for this confusing practice was to provide a measure of continuity for the Church. The stable human figure at the pinnacle was very important. It has always been a practice to encourage Church members to write directly to Ron Hubbard. In early days those letters were no doubt answered personally. Subsequently the volume would have made this impossible. It is widely believed that a clerical team handle this correspondence, most of which would follow predictable patterns, and could therefore be answered according to preset patterns
A further step in Hubbard's withdrawal process was the establishment.
of the LRH Communicator Network International in 1977. All communications with Hubbard went up through this Communicator Network and came down through it. Although it carried the implied link directly to Ron Hubbard, there was no way of knowing who was producing the material that carried his name.
Whatever the balance of reasons, the withdrawal of Ron Hubbard from day to day management of the Church's affairs during this period probably allowed others genuinely to take responsibility for running the Church. The Church in the late seventies seems to have moved into one of its most productive periods.
CHAPTER TEN RON HUBBARD'S LEGACY
A full biography of Ron Hubbard and a balanced assessment of h achievements will no doubt be written one day. It is too early to attempt anything more than a brief assessment now.
It cannot be overemphasized that Ron Hubbard and the Church Scientology are not the same thing. There are many people around the world who have washed their hands of the Church but who would willing assist him as an individual if he needed it. They would do so as the least they could do for the man who had enabled them to change their vie of life and to achieve purpose and peace of mind.
Our first impression of Ron Hubbard is probably somewhat distasteful.
The various groups who have held sway in the Church over the years have always had a tendency to idolise him. The present management of t, Church has taken this even further and virtually deified him.
In the early days he must have gone along with the tendency to put him on a pedestal, probably without too much concern about where might lead. There is plenty of evidence in his writings and taped lectures of his view of himself. He regarded himself as fortunate to have stumbled into such a fruitful area of research. He has said however that each person should assess for himself the validity of his findings and only accept what fits in with his own experience of life hitherto.
To see his work in context we should bear in mind his life before the emergence of Dianetics and then Scientology. He was in his mid-thirties by the time he started systematic work on Dianetics. As a young man he was obviously an adventurer. He was very interested in exploring anything new.
Both the words adventurer and explorer can be used dismissively if we choose, but they represent his inclinations very well. His intense interest in the exciting things of the day, aviation, exploration, films and science fiction are all to his credit.
He had always been interested in the functioning of the mind. This was in part due to the introduction he had to the subject from Commander Thompson, said to have been a pupil of Freud.
We may see this interest in the mind as a bit strange for a non professional. We should however remember that Freud was still alive in the 1930's and the controversy that his ideas had started was still raging among professional and lay people alike. It is only since the 1950's that ordinary people have been willing to leave this subject to the professional psychiatrists and philosophers. These professionals have intellectualised the subject out of all recognition. One brave attempt to put it back within the reach of the lay person was the 1984 Reith Lecture Series (broadcast by the BBC) on Minds, Brains and Science given by John Searle, Professor of Philosophy at the University of California.
It may seem trite, but there is a logic in an explorer turning his attention to exploring the mind. Hubbard was an inveterate asked of questions and could not pass by a subject without probing for reasons why things happened, what rules could be formulated and how the subject could be improved.
He has been characterised as a modern Philosopher, particularly by the Church of Scientology That may well be true, but philosophers are a little remote from our every day lives and philosophy is not a subject of popular concern. Hubbard has also been described as a Scientist in that he always looked for the fundamental principles of a subject which could be shown to operate in a predictable pattern. While this has been true, he has never spent a great deal of time expanding theory. He has actually placed much more emphasis on putting the findings of his research to use. He would have much more sympathy with the description of an that he always looked for the fundamental principles of a subject which could be shown to operate in a predictable pattern. While this has been true, he has never spent a great deal of time expanding theory. He has actually placed much more emphasis on putting the findings of his research to use. He would have much more sympathy with the description of an Engineer, because an engineer puts discovered scientific principles to work the form of technology.
Ron Hubbard was very impatient with science for science's sake. He wanted to know how it could be used to do something or improve something. In one of his typical comments on medical psychiatry he states that no patient was ever helped by giving a fancy name to his condition.
He said of his discoveries that they are only as valuable as the use that can be made of them. If they can't be applied to bring about benefit, better forget about them.
In looking at his work and achievements, the dominating feature is of course clearing the reactive mind and opening the way for the spiritual gains available to the individual from the OT levels. The problem is however that these are very difficult subjects to make real to a person who had no exposure to them. Why should the man in the street take the time and trouble to consider these ideas among so many others?
The best answer to this question is to state that at least 30,000 people throughout the world have attested to going Clear. Going Clear means no longer having a reactive mind to cause the person to do things irrationally or bring about unwarranted feelings of anxiety or guilt.
Many more have started out on the journey but have stopped part way, not because they ceased to believe in its value but because they found it very hard work. In addition others have become disheartened because of the action of the Church and the endless controversy over what it should cost. Probably over a million people have been exposed to his ideas.
Despite all the setbacks, Ron Hubbard has pointed a route out of unhappiness and confusion, and many have followed it. For those who have made it their debt to him is incalculable and their wonder at his having found it is unceasing.
In a completely different area, Ron Hubbard developed something which has been of incalculable value to children and young people and bears no recognisable imprint of Scientology to the outside observer.
Mention was made earlier of the work Hubbard did on techniques of studying when setting up the training college at Saint Hill in the early sixties. The precepts for good and effective study were then consolidated into a Study course which became the first step for all student auditors.
So successful was this that several simplified courses have been developed for use by children and young people who are having difficulty at school. The methods taught for studying are very simple and practical and many young people have found their performance at school transformed within months.
The spread of this study method is handled by a separate body called the Effective Education Association. It runs short teacher training courses and publishes study materials.
The controversial Greenfields School near East Grinstead has been set up to educate the children of local Scientologists. There may be questions about early influencing of young people towards a particular religion but nonetheless the school uses the study methods and has produced exceptional results at O and A level examinations. In the United States, the schools run on Hubbard study principles are known as Delphi Schools.
In fairness it should be said that in the last 20 years some of these study techniques have been discovered by others and can be seen to some degree applied in modern education methods.
Another useful by-product of Ron Hubbard's work is what he found out about how people communicate and how they can do it better. This originated from training Auditors to be effective. From this have evolved several independent Communication Courses.
The benefit that has been gained by individuals from these Communication Courses include considerable increases in confidence, improved concentration, and even curing stammerers.
Another area of remarkable achievement is in providing a means of immediate help to the sick and injured. There is a wide range of techniques that can relieve pain and discomfort. They are known as 'Assists'. These Assists were a by product of auditing technique. One does not have to be a fully trained auditor to administer an Assist. With only minimum training one person can reduce or remove anothers backache, headache, or virtually any other physical discomfort. For a person who has a broken limb, which should of course be set immediately by a qualified medical person, the speed of bone knitting can be accelerated by a simple Assist done for a few minutes each day.
Assists can be used to help an adult ot child recover from an upsetting emotional experience. This can be anything from a domestic argument to a bereavement. An Assist exists to reduce the temperature level in a feverish patient. There are even assists that one can administer to oneself.
The apparent miraculous nature of these may prompt one to think of faith healing. It is worth quoting Ron Hubbard who says that the person receiving the Assist does not have to believe in it, just allow it to be done to them. He didn't mention the person delivering the Assist. They would only need to have seen it work once to believe in it.
As a result of having this technology, Scientologists have little use for pain killing drugs. In fact their view of drugs is that while they may be necessary occasionally, they do inhibit the effective working of the mind at the time and do leave harmful residues in the body.
The Scientologist's view of narcotics is even stronger. Addiction to street drugs, alcohol or tranquillisers are all equally abhorrent. They represent both a failure of the individual to handle the problems in his life and a steady poisoning of the body.
A beneficial by product of Hubbard's work is the use it has been put to helping addicts to free themselves from drug taking. The Narconon (Non Narcosis) Programme was initiated by an inmate of Arizona State Penitentiary who had been a drug addict for nineteen years. A copy of 'Fundamentals of Thought' by Ron Hubbard was given to him by another prisoner in 1966. From his initial studies and experiments, William Benitez went on to found the Narconon programme and was released before the end of his sentence to develop his work.
He received encouragement from Ron Hubbard and assistance in developing the content of the programme. The success rates quoted for people undergoing the programme are impressive. By 1972 Narconon was running residential courses for addicts who were not in prison. Many of the staff running the courses, both in prisons and residential centres, were ex-addicts who had been helped by Narconon and then wanted to help others.
By 1978 there were thirty-one Narconon groups operative throughout the world. In the United States Narconon groups have received financial support from local government and private charities. More recently groups have developed in Sweden and Italy and it is hoped there will be one operating in the UK soon.
Returning to the individual improving his normal day-to-day life, some mention has already been made of Hubbard's work in business management and administration theory. When he ran Saint Hill, he introduced what was called a Personal Efficiency Foundation Course for newcomers to Scientology.
The basic thinking was that a person would not be able to sort out his deeper mental and spiritual problems if his home life was in chaos or he was worried about losing his job. Over the years the content of the course was chopped and changed but the name carried on, as did its purpose.
The elementary steps involved in the course showed one how to identify the things that might be going wrong in one's life. With the usual accent on practicality, members on the courses were encouraged to do something about it and get themselves back at 'cause' in their lives. Many of the elements of these courses were published as booklets and are still available to assist the person who feels that life is running them rather than they are running it.
Another major legacy that we have from Hubbard's work is his practical guidance to being happy. He acknowledged that many obstacles to happiness and peace of mind lie in our past and he developed Dianetic auditing to handle these. However, he also pointed out that if there are damaging things we are doing to ourselves or troublesome situations in our lives at present, then these too are obstacles to our happiness.
This area is known as Ethics. The term has a head masterly ring about it but Ron Hubbard took great pains to say it was not about being in the wrong. It was more about the options that are open to us in the way we live our lives. Nearly always there are a variety of ways we can deal with most situations. The factors we take into account in making our choice need to be seen as having broader implications than just self interest.
It is worth mentioning that Ron Hubbard does not favour the total denial of self implicit in many religions. We are brought up with the traditional belief that we are weak and bad and therefore need to punish ourselves. A person who makes themselves a drudge of a demanding relative or child is not making the most ethical choice. They may be benefiting another human being, but at the loss of their own self- determinism, their development and ultimately their happiness.
It is not just a question of analysing a situation to establish the most 'ethical' solution. Ron Hubbard also provided a series of progressive steps that an individual could take to remedy an unsatisfactory situation. This 'Ethics Tech' has been applied to produce marriage guidance counselling techniques and help for ailing businesses.
Regrettably over zealous use of this 'Ethics Tech' by the Church in its internal affairs in recent years has brought the subject into disrepute.
Nonetheless the body of thought which Ron Hubbard evolved in the mid 60's on Ethics still stands and is extremely useful. A little booklet called 'The Way to Happiness' published by the Church is probably the best introduction to this very helpful subject.
There are many other areas where Hubbard has left us valuable and useful ideas. It was his nature not to be able to walk past a problem without analysing it. If asked how much milk should be ordered the next day, his response would be to try to get the questioner to work it out for himself and to assist him he would probably write a bulletin on what factors to analyse to produce a correct level of milk ordering in all circumStances.
Thus there are bulletins and taped lectures on music, photography, public relations, bringing up children, printing, choreography, and even how his car should he washed!
Finally in this catalogue of identifiable benefits that Ron Hubbard the man has left us, it is worth mentioning him as a source of common advice for living. There was a regular publication called 'Advance' which was produced by the Church until about 1980. Its purpose was to link the religious aspects of Scientology with other religious and mystical thinking.
There were usually two articles in it by Ron Hubbard. One would explore the parallels and relevance of Scientology principles and findings with other religions and traditions. The other would be more practical advice or guidance on living everyday life, particularly how to see and interpret what is going on around one. In these essays he restated simple truths for which one can usually see immediate applications. These may have concerned communication, sense of purpose, aspirations, marriage, self-management and even money
His view of money is extremely simple. It is a medium of exchange.
If you do something that is useful and of value to others money will come to you. He sees money as inert and useless in itself. He says many people make the mistake of putting too much attention on it and treating it as an end In Itself. Instead of worrying about money he says, we should worry about what we are doing that is of use to those about us.
In addition to his valuable insights, it is worth mentioning Ron's exhuberant style. To make a point he would often exaggerate grossly or give an outrageous example. It is up to the reader not to take these too seriously but see the serious point being made underneath.
In this chapter it may appear that an attempt is being made to put Hubbard on a pedestal and play down his faults. Elsewhere in this book the consequences of his failings and misjudgements can be judged by the reader. Wider knowledge ot the events summarised in this book and the additional evidence which is likely to emerge in the future, will lead to further condemnation of Hubbard. This chapter tries to redress the balance a little in the light of Shakespeare's warning in Julius Ceaser: 'The evil that man do lives after them, the good is oft interred with their bones'.
CHAPTER ELEVEN THE CHURCH IN THE 70's
The setting up of a network of Scientology Churches across the United States, Canada, Europe, South Africa and Australasia was largely complete by 1972. These Churches came to be known as Orgs. They were run by staff directly employed by the Church. They were equipped to deliver all the necessary auditing steps to get a person to Clear and to train competent auditors. Training as an auditor very much accelerates the speed at which an individual's own state of spiritual awareness can progress so all newcomers to the subject are encouraged to train as Auditors. In addition the Org would provide a range of introductory courses, films and group activities for people new to Scientology.
The Mission programme got started in the 70's. Its aim was to make Scientology available more locally than just major cities. These were geared to provide the basic introductory courses to Scientology and lower levels of auditing and training. Between 1971 and 1977 over 100 Missions were set up in the United States, 30 in continental Europe, and 8 in the UK.
They were run by a Mission Holder who was a Franchisee of the Church. They employed their own staff and were required to charge at least the same for their services as their nearest Org.
The intention was that the Mission would produce a flow of people ready to go to the higher levels of auditing and training at the nearest Org. The Org would in turn provide support, guidance and training to the Mission Holder and his staff. The Org would also assist any other local groups or individual Field Auditors operating in its area.
During this period some necessary consolidation of the written materials of Scientology and Dianetics was done. One of the problems with the rapid growth of the subject was terminology. With Hubbard's emphasis on fully understanding words, it became necessary to produce a Technical Dictionary defining the Scientology and Dianetic terms in regular use. The advances made in Dianetics were assembled and published in Dianetics Today in 1975. A further major advance was a book on applying Scientology in the community to help others. This was the Volunteer Ministers Handbook published in 1976.
Although the Church had its own publishing house in Copenhagen other writers and publishers were not discouraged from producing book on Scientology. One very successful publisher was Scientology Ann Arbor of Michigan. They produced some very useful basic Scientology booklets.
These dealt with such subjects as Personal Efficiency, Happiness, and Ups and Downs in one's personal state of mind, All these books could be read and applied by someone knowing nothing previously about Scientology.
Another successful contribution came from an author called Ruth Minshull who wrote books about applying Scientology to bringing up children and how to recognise and handle people who could upset you.
Other authors wrote books on money management and how to be more successful in daily life. Due acknowledgement was made in all these books to the origin of the principles and it was hoped people who gained benefit from them would then want to know more about Scientology.
One very successful initiative was a comprehensive explanatory book called 'What is Scientology?' published by Scientology Ann Arbor in 1974.
So successful was this book that it was taken over and published by the Church from 1978.
All these works were acknowledged by the Church as helpful and were on sale through the network of Orgs and Missions, alongside the many books by Ron Hubbard himself,
During this time the Church became more active in the field of social services. Mention has already been made of the Educational Programme and the programme for the rehabilitation of drug addicts called Narconon,
The 'Citizens Commission on Human Rights' (CCHR) is dedicated to the elimination of psychiatric abuse. It believes that mental patients constitute one of the most oppressed and least represented minority groups across the world. One of its first major successes was in obtaining the release of a Hungarian, Victor Gyory, from a mental hospital in Philadelphia in 1969. He had attempted suicide but spoke little English.
He was held against his will, drugged and forcibly given electric shock treatment (which kills part of the brain tissue). The CCHR took his case to court, got leave to get their own medical examination done and got a writ of Habeus Corpus from the courts to release Victor Gyory.
This shows graphically the field that CCHR is addressing itself to.
They are not alone in this concern. Two books on the subject are 'Psychiatry in Dissent' by Anthony Clare (Tavistock Publications, London 1980) and 'Limits to Medicine' by Ivan Illich (Pelican, 1984). For many the best insight into the subject is the setting of the story filmed as 'One flew over the Cuckoo's Nest' with Jack Nicholson.
Citizens Commission on Human Rights groups have been set-up in various parts of the world. In 1976 the CCHR played an important role in getting a law passed in California making it a requirement for the patient to be informed of the nature of Psychosurgery and Electro-Convulsive treatment (ECT) and for his consent prior to treatment being obtain without duress.
The reasons Scientologists are so concerned by these abuses are, firstly, the irreversible damage done to the brain in psychosurgery may prevent that person ever freeing himself of the mental states that are oppressing him. Secondly, Scientologists believe that there are far more practical and effective methods of dealing with mental problems.
The 'Commitee on Health and Public Safety' (COPHS) was set up with Church support to probe the cost effectiveness of health care. In the United States many individuals do not have health insurance and have to pay heavy medical bills themselves. The costs of treatment and drugs are at least as high in the United States as in the UK, and the effectiveness of drug dependent medical therapy was already being questioned in the early 70's.
The COPHS published details of alternative health care facilities. It also attacked the health care monopoly exercised by the American Medical Association and the pharmaceutical industry. It claims that this alliance works against alternative forms of help such as osteopathy, nutrition analysis and vitamin therapy. Once again the Scientological viewpoint opposed the heavy use of drugs and tranquillisers as being both wasteful and ineffective.
Other areas of social services are the Gerus Society which concerns itself with the conditions in which elderly people are kept in institutions particularly with the heavy use of drugs to keep them quiet. The National Alliance on Alcoholism, Prevention and Treatment (NAAPT) was set up to change the attitude that alcoholism was a psychiatric condition with drug treatment being the only recourse, Also started in this era was CREO (Committee to re-involve Ex-Offenders) and Task Force on Mental Retardation. Both groups aim to shake fixed views on these problems and how they should be handled.
This work to improve the lot of the weaker members of our society expanded in the 70's and was extended from the US to many other countries. However, it was and is quite separate from the network of Orgs and Missions which constitute the Church and does not involve the staff who work for the Church.
The average member of Church staff is encouraged to keep his attention on his job and the affairs of his Org. It may seem that this is because it makes him easier to control but it does increase the chance that he will make some effective contribution to the Church's progress.
Most people who come into brief contact with the Church will naturally make their initial assessment based on the people they encounter.
If this includes meeting members of the Church staff, then they will inevitably be influenced to some degree by their impression of them.
Regrettably, they will too often not form a good initial impression.
The key to understanding how this comes about is the nature of the Church's recruitment policy. Most Church staff are recruited from people passing on the street. The usual method of getting people interested is the 'free personality test'. There is an open-door policy for staff recruitment with very few disqualifications from joining Staff are paid a fixed proportion of the income to their Org. This comes from sales of books, courses, auditing services and training. The proportion of income going to wages does not vary with the number of staff and is thus divided among however few or many there are. Church staffing policy maintains that the more staff you have the more activity will be generated and this will produce increasing revenue. Therefore almost anyone who wants to join the staff can do so.
The method of recruitment and terms of employment offered means that the staff acquired fit a predictable pattern. They are mostly young and unattached. They do not need to maintain a high income and are prepared to put idealism before practical needs. It could be said that they are also impressionable and easily duped. On the other hand they are at least open-minded and willing to see if this new way of thinking and living is actually better.
Inevitably recruits include many who have previously been dropouts from mainstream society. These include those disillusioned with education or traditional social patterns. They are looking for a better way of living, and in Scientology they judge that they have found it. Many of the enthusiastic young recruits run true to their previous form and fade away after a few weeks, but some stay on.
Those that stay beyond the first few months do get some training in both Scientology and doing their jobs. They may also receive some auditing. but not usually much in their first year or two. They are given very specific responsibilities and basic training on how to fulfil them Although training is usually less than it should be, the study methods used are such that they find that maybe for the first time in their lives, they can learn things and take responsibility as a member of a team.
One thing that is worth noting is that the whole organisation genuinely gives Equal Opportunity. Women and blacks hold high positions without it being a matter of any significance. Creches are even provided in the Sea Org for young children.
The major problem for staff members is the tendency towards isolation from the outside world. Although some staff members hold ordinary jobs, they tend after a while to drop them in order to work full time in the Church. The jargon of Scientology has almost become a special language, and for many staff members is a comfortable overcoat. Generally they are unable to reduce the subject to simple terms comprehensible to outsiders. As a result they inevitably distance themselves from family and friends.
The problems of opening up the subject of Scientology to people who know nothing about it concerned Ron Hubbard, and he wrote a lot about it. Unfortunately the solutions he produced were only partial and not very simple. The average staff member thus retires into the smaller world of people who already understand the subject and where he can communicate comfortably.
The staff in the Org are strongly motivated to get results. Hubbard was the classic scientific manager. Every job should have its quantifiable results and those should be measured regularly. Scientific management may have been reappraised in recent years by large centralised multi- nationals but not yet in the Church of Scientology. The Church is an extremely centralised organisation. There is a regular flow of communication both ways. However, while the flow from the centre is management orders and filtered information, the upwards flow is largely of statistical results.
There is no opportunity for worker participation in the running of the Church. Almost all the actions taken in an Org are laid down in management policy and they are done in the same way in Milwaukee and Munich. There is little scope for local initiative and few Church executives have the experience or confidence to pit their judgment against 'policy'.
Too often therefore executives stick to the book, repeating actions they have seen fail already, but at least confident that they cannot be accused of being 'off-policy'.
By the end of the seventies, the Church was probably becoming top heavy. There was a steady flow of people up through the Church's organisation to the central management and administrative departments.
Any staff member in a local Org could move him or herself up at anytime by volunteering for the Sea Org, which still continued its separate existence even after the demise of the ships. There was a continual hunger for people in the Sea Org. Assuming one met the minimal qualifications for the Sea Org one could get in, and their recruiters were always on the look-out for likely talent.
The Sea Org by now had taken over operations of the more prestigious delivery points. Saint Hill Advanced and Foundation Orgs were taken over by them in 1970.
Many Executive Directors of local Orgs must have had the disheartening experience of sending a good staff recruit to Saint Hill for training, only to find he had been persuaded to join the Sea Org. This would mean that he would become a staff member at the Saint Hill Org, or be moved into an administrative job, or taken into FOLO (Flag Organisation Liaison Office). So big did Saint Hill become that FOLO was pushed out and acquired premises at Rottingdean on the south coast.
The organisational structure designed by Hubbard for running the Church was well balanced and potentially very effective. Like all large organisations however, it does not seem proof against empire building executives and bureaucracy. Highly trained Sea Org members were used on central administrative functions and there was little use made of them to support the local Orgs. More usually Sea Org members are seen only on flying visits, known as 'Missions'. These are intended to sort out lack of results in a particular Org, or to try to sell services for the Org where those Sea Org members are based.
The other area that seemed to have lost its original sense of purpose was the Guardians Office. It had got itself more involved in legal battles, many with governmental bodies, than ensuring that whole structure was efficiently delivering 'Standard Tech' and operating 'On Policy'. The extent of this battling with government can be judged by the raid carried out by the FBI on the Churches in Washington DC and Los Angeles in 1977.
Many documents were seized in these raids though some were returned by court order.
These events may be connected with the subsequent prosecutions of a number of members of the Guardians Office, including Mary Sue Hubbard, Ron's third wife. At all events Mary Sue Hubbard and her co- defendants were tried and admitted guilt to various charges of theft of materials from government offices. They were sentenced to periods of imprisonment of one to four years each in 1981.
Thus the 1970's represent a period when significant progress was made by the Church in establishing Scientology as a beneficial movement for humanity. Its setbacks were mostly of its own making and it seemed unable or unwilling to extricate itself from the courts.
CHAPTER TWELVE WHAT PRICE HAPPINESS?
The idea of Churches charging money for the services they provide has always been contentious. Paying for special masses in the Catholic Church or paying tithes to the Church of England have both been sources of great controversy in the past.
The Church of Scientology has always had the reputation of being financially motivated. The fact that a Church should have to charge anything for its services seems dubious. Even if one is prepared to contribute to the repair of the Church roof or the maintenance of the Vicar's family, the idea of paying when you need pastoral guidance or counselling seems inappropriate to us.
Thus the level of payment for services of the Church of Scientology is secondary to the issue of whether one should pay anything at all for religious guidance or support.
This attitude is probably reinforced in Britain by our method of paying for Health Care. We pay for the services of the National Health Service mostly through taxation and find ourselves resenting even the subsidised charges we have to pay at the dentist or for a prescription.
In the United States the individual usually pays directly for health care, even if they then claim the costs back on health insurance. The closest anology to Dianetics and Scientology counselling for many would be 'going to an analyst'. This is a practice we are led to believe is common in the United States. Such one-to-one attention by the hour is unlikely to be cheap, even by American standards. There have however been many and vociferous complaints in the United States over the years about the level of charges made by the Church for its services.
Whatever the Church charged, it is probable that there would always be some complaint. We would do well to remember Oscar Wilde's definition of a cynic as a man who knows the price of everything and the value of nothing. If we extend this beyond cynics, then we can see that a person without some personal experience of what is on offer is not in a position to make a meaningful judgement as to its value in money terms.
One can imagine that a susceptible person could be swept away by enthusiasm to spend large sums of money on things that others consider strange. However, there is no basic difference between this applied to Scientology and the willingness of some people to spend large amounts holiday cruises, private education or large thirsty motor cars.
The fundamental issue is what you consider is of value to you.
Significant members of intelligent and well-educated people have spent hefty sums of money on services from the Church of Scientology, and consider it very well spent. These include hard-headed business people, teachers and doctors, by no means all of them in the first flush of youth.
Their willingness to spend these amounts of money in this area is unlikely to be the result of wild impetuosity. On the other hand there are people who have spent large sums with the Church and have been disappointed in what they got for their money.
The level of pricing has always been a controversial subject within the Church too. What should you charge for something which many consider priceless?
The usual mechanism of the market place came into play almost as soon as the movement got going. Churches in different areas charged different amounts and discounted heavily to keep their traffic flow even.
Pricing was chaotic and controversial even in those early days. There is an interesting series of administrative bulletins which show the difficulty Ron Hubbard had in getting a rational pricing formula accepted by Church executives in the mid 60's.
In 1964 there was pricing chaos and loud complaint about differing prices between the different Churches. On investigation Ron Hubbard found widespread discounting and wheeler-dealing. People buying services could shop around and haggle but some Churches were complaining they could not make ends meet.
Ron got all the senior executives to agree to a formula whereby a 25 hour block of auditing would be charged at the equivalent of three months earnings of the average middle level working person of that country. All prices for auditing on this basis would be net and there would be no further discounting. All parties agreed to this and it was introduced in 1965. The price to be charged in the UK for 25 hours auditing was L134, the equivalent of L5.40 per hour.
In the first two months of 1965 the volume of auditing hours slumped.
The blame was put on the new system and no discounting. In March 1965 Ron gave in and sent out a bulletin cancelling the new scheme and virtually giving back freedom to local Churches to charge what they thought fit.
In most cases this was probably less than the three months wages equivalent.
Today that mid-sixties pricing formula looks very attractive if we compare it to the Church's current level of charges. Probably through the rest of the sixties, and most of the seventies, the prices would seem fair and reasonable to us now. The reason why the Churches did not have queues of people wanting auditing probably had little to do with pricing levels. It was much more likely to do with the Church's failure to make understood what it was offering to a significant number of new people.
At all events the Church obviously costs money to run. Although staff salaries have never been high, there are a lot of them to pay. Fixed costs of buildings and grounds have to be paid. Expenditure on telephone and postage is heavy and they also spend a huge amount of money on printed material to be given away.
The costs of the legal activities of the Church and the large numbers of support staff must have had its effect. The increasing costs of running the Church had already started to be felt in 1975 76. A bulletin appeared in Hubbard's name called the 'Solution to Inflation' in October 1976. This stated that the Church had not taken account of ravaging inflation and its prices had fallen behind. It stated that from November 1976 prices of all Church services would go up by 5% at the end of each month. In the UK however prices would go up by 10% at the end of each month.
Initially this probably had quite a good effect on revenue as Church staff pulled through orders for auditing, training and books before the prices had risen too much. However, the compound interest formula indicates that 5% per month over a year is 80% and 10% over a year is an increase of 185%. Before long the flow of people buying services and books had slowed down and prices were stabilised again after about a year.
Although this exercise would have given a healthy boost to Church revenue, it would appear that it was not enough to keep pace with rising costs. A repeat operation was mounted starting in late 1978 which ran again for about a year.
Both these price raising operations put a lot of pressure on Mission Holders and Field Auditors, who were obliged to keep in line with Org prices. It led to them introducing disguised price reductions, barter (accepting goods instead of money) and extended credit arrangements.
It is probable that the second price raising operation was not as productive as the first. Stopping the increase did not produce a major change for the better either. There would be quite a time gap before people adjusted to the new stable prices and volume sales started to recover.
Pricing and financial management does not therefore seem to have been very effective during the late seventies. By the beginning of the eighties the Church seemed to have got itself into a severe financial mess.
CHAPTER THIRTEEN THE EVENTS OF 1982
The events related in this chapter are extremely contentious and any attempt to report them fairly is fraught with difficulties. Four main sources have been drawn on for the information reported. This account deals only with the events that most of these sources refer to and which are therefore most likely to be factually correct. The reasons why these things happened are of course open to much wider speculation.
The sources are the Church's own bulletins and statements, the Zegal tapes (see Appendix B), the widely circulated photostat anonymous document known as 'The Dane Tops' letter, and the Sunday Times Magazine article based on a wide number of interviews of people who were personally involved in these events (published October 28th 1984).
Most eventualities are catered for in the procedures for the running of the Church as laid down by Ron Hubbard. This includes a system of justice for those who do something against the Church's ethical standards or have consistently failed to follow its policies. This system of justice is available to, and can be applied to, all members of Staff and any person involved with the Church.
The highest level of judgement or court, is known as a Committee of Evidence. It has to be run according to certain rules of evidence which aim to be fair to the person being accused. For example he or she may see all the evidence against them in advance. It must be written up and be strictly factual. The Committee of Evidence known inevitably as a 'Comm Ev' reaches a conclusion and recommends what action should be taken. The heaviest penalty that can be recommended is withdrawal of certificates as an auditor and expulsion from the Church.
A person who is considered to be capable of interfering harmfully with the spiritual gains of another is termed a Suppressive Person. The only reason that a person would be expelled from the Church would be because something he was doing was likely to damage or suppress the spiritual gain of others. In being expelled he would therefore be judged a 'Suppressive Person. All persons within the Church are forbidden further contact with the Suppressive Person, 'to avoid risk to their own spiritual gains'. A written report must be circulated with the specific reasons why that person had been declared Suppressive. This is usually known as a 'Declare'.
Up to 1982 there had been periodic use of the Declare mechanism for purging the Church of individuals and groups who were considered to be damaging or disruptive. Not too much long term damage was done however as the Declaree could appeal for a Review Committee of Evidence and there were periodic amnesties.
Probably the pattern up to 1982 was not too different from the feuds and divisions in any other rapidly growing radical groups such as a new political party, trade union or popular rights movement.
The events of 1982 were of a different order and the shock was so deep that only now is it possible to get an idea of what happened. The first information to spread through the Church was a photocopied letter, known as the 'Dane Tops' letter, which reached the UK in mid-1983.
This letter says that in March 1982 a series of Declares started and went on and on. Over 600 people were declared in the Los Angeles area alone. The people being declared at this stage were top managers and senior technical executives. Most of the Guardians Office were also expelled. In some cases there were Committees of Evidence but in most cases the expulsions took place without a hearing and the declare documents were full of generalities. This flouting of the established procedure had never been done before on such a scale.
Most of the people declared at this stage were Sea Org members or senior Staff Members. The general trend of most of the declare documents was similar. The usual claim was 'Squirreling', that is adulterating Standard Tech. Most of the people declared at this time were referred to as 'Squirrels'. This was a term Ron Hubbard had used in the past to describe a person who modified auditing processes because they were impatient or thought they knew a better way of doing the process.
Most of these people were accused of altering technical procedures for financial gain or to undermine the progress of Scientology.
Widespread investigations were undertaken with the aim of purging the Church of elements who were stealing from it and undermining standards of auditing delivery. The poor financial performance of the Church was attributed to the alleged large numbers of people who had been diverting Church revenue to themselves.
This same theme emerged at the Mission Holders Conference held in San Francisco in November 1982. The Mission Holders were harangued at length by a group of Sea Org members for 'ripping off' the Orgs. This meant Mission Holders delivering services to Church members at their Missions that should have been delivered at Orgs. Heavy fines were imposed on Missions, investigations ordered at the Mission Holders expense and additional levies on all revenue into Missions were imposed.
Prosecution was threatened to all who did not comply.
Field Auditors who operated on their own or in small groups were similarly accused of 'ripping off' Orgs. They too were heavily fined and required to pay a 10% levy on their income. A number were declared and others threatened with declare if they did not pay.
The 5% monthly price increases were re-introduced, with a rigid clampdown on special deals. As the Missions and Field Auditors had to follow these spiralling prices, there was increasing unrest and conflict.
The post of International Finance Dictator was established and he had a staff of 'Finance Police'. Their role was to investigate financial abuses by Mission Holders, Field Auditors and Orgs. Practitioners in other fields who made some use of Scientology tech were also investigated by the Finance Police. In one instance they allegedly arrived at a school in the United States run on Scientology study principles and demanded a portion of the school income for the rights to use LRH study technology.
The strong move to expand income rapidly even included a scheme whereby all members of the Church who were in business should pay a 10% levy on their business income. This was justified on the grounds that their earning power would have been enhanced by the application of Scientology principles and their ability gains from Scientology auditing.
The wholesale expulsion of members of staff, both Sea Org and non- Sea Org personnel, may well have been justified as a purifying exercise but it also had cost cutting benefits. Once started however, it may have gone further than originally intended.
The prospects for someone who had been thrown out after many years inside the Church were pretty grim, both economically and spiritually.
They naturally objected and, despite the non-communication rule, lobbied staff members still on the inside. When the people on the inside protested, they were subjected to disciplinary action themselves and either intimidated into silence or were subjected to Committees of Evidence.
An atmosphere of great insecurity developed within the Church.
Nobody wished to draw attention to themselves in case they were next to be put under the spotlight. Some felt the best way of protecting themselves was to make incriminating statements about others. Old jealousies probably added to the dispute and the atmosphere of vengeful righteousness.
The most distasteful episode to have become public was the detainment for several months of 17 top executives of the Church. Included among these was the Case Supervisor International, David Mayo, who had been responsible for the standard delivery of auditing technology throughout the world. They were jointly accused by Committee of evidence in October 1982 at Gilman Hot Springs, Riverside County, California. They were kept there and subjected to mental and physical duress. They were interrogated many times about their own actions and those of each other. These events were reported separately by three of the four sources quoted at the start of this chapter.
In some cases the axe fell across marriages. If one partner was declared, the other was forbidden contact with that person on risk of being declared themselves. This is the practice known as 'Disconnection'. Even sadder were the cases where children were involved. An article appeared in the Daily Mail on Saturday, February 11th 1984, which gave some examples and quoted some interviews.
Other staff and members of the Church were very upset about what they saw happening around them. Some staff members, at great personal sacrifice, packed their bags and walked out. Many ordinary members either resigned or just became inactive.
It is worth saying that there had been witch hunts and purges previously. In the past prominent staff and members had been declared suppressive and thrown out. These previous purges had also left their legacy of disgruntlement and demotivation, according to the Dane Tops letter.
He reports that the demotivation of many Scientologists was an issue being hotly debated in the Church at the end of 1981. This was the result of pressure from the Mission Holders. They maintained that the large number of aggrieved people who were suing or threatening to sue the Church were making it difficult for them to gain credibility with new recruits.
As a result, a joint exercise, involving the Mission Holders and the Flag management, was set-up to handle the grievances of these disgruntled Scientologists. Meetings were called in early 1982 and large numbers of these dissatisfied members were given the chance at interviews to explain their grievances. These were discussed, and, when necessary, auditing was provided free of charge. Large numbers, running into thousands, of inactive Scientologists were in the process of being handled at this time. There is said to have been a resurgence of hope that the Church was willing to admit past errors and put them right. This was of course brought to an abrupt end by the later events of 1982.
Several other hopeful signs of change for the better were evident at the beginning of 1982. In March a bulletin called Introductory and Demonstration Processes was issued in Ron Hubbard's name but carrying the initials of David Mayo. It coincided with the publication of a manual of '101 Processes and Assists'. These could be done by Scientologists with a little training on members of their families and friends, and would give immediate benefit or relief. This was to be the ideal starting point for bringing new people into the subject. It could be learnt and understood easily, being assembled from processes Ron Hubbard had developed in the 1950's. In the introduction to the Manual three follow-up books of processes and assists were promised.
In May 1982, a momentous bulletin, called 'Ridge on the Bridge', was issued. This also dealt with the need to provide an appropriate entry point for new people to the subject. It reinstated the first book of the movement Dianetics, Modern Science of Mental Health - and the form of auditing that it contained, as a major entry point for new people. The book became known as 'Book One' and seminars to teach people to deliver 'Book One Auditing' were set-up all over the United States and the UK.
Once again the Bulletin which set this off carried David Mayo's name.
About this time a scheme called 'Operation Fourth Dynamic' was set up. Its role was to take applied Scientology technology into the community and use it to help people feel better. It included programmes of events and group processes to be run in such places as Old Peoples Homes and Nursery Schools.
Regrettably all three of these initiatives were not to have the beneficial effect that was planned. The Introductory and Demonstration manual and courses were given little attention after the initial launch and the promised follow-up books never appeared. The Ridge on the Bridge bulletin was modified and David Mayo's name removed from it. The momentum for Book One Auditor training was allowed to run down. The original very successful weekend course format was cancelled and replaced by another.
Operation Fourth Dynamic was summarily squashed in 1983, with no replacement.
As some explanation of what led to the abandonment of these hopeful initiatives in mid 1982, we can only rely on the main events recounted in the Zegal tapes. The relevant events start in September 1979. At that point the Commodores Messenger Organisation allegedly took over the top Church Management. What exactly this means can probably only be understood by people familiar with the inner workings of the International Management set-up in California. Sufficient to say that some power shift took place in late 1979 but it obviously took time to work its way through the vast organisational structure of the Church.
Zegal reports that the next step in the takeover of control took place in January/February 1982 with the setting up of the Religious Technology Centre and Authors Services. Their purpose was to control the use of the LRH trademarks and copyrights. They claimed exclusive rights to gain financial benefit from these trademarks and copyrights. In June 1982, the International Finance Police were set-up as an executive arm of the Religious Technology Centre.
It was obvious that at some stage the Commodores Messenger Organisation (CMO) and the Guardian's Office would come into conflict.
When it happened, in June/July 1982, the Guardian's Office capitulated with little resistance. Probably the imminent verdict in the trial of Mary Sue Hubbard and other prominent members of the Guardians Office provided the opportunity for the CMO to move in and take over. Soon after the top people in the Guardian s Office had been removed from their posts, Mary Sue Hubbard and a number of her colleagues in the Guardian's Office were sent to prison for theft of material from Government Offices.
Zegal reports the major move to take control of the operating network of the Church took place in July/August 1982. The majority of senior Church top executives were taken off their posts. They were subjected to Committee of Evidence and mostly found guilty of misdemeanours and declared. The heads of all the Flag Organisation Liaison Office (FOLOs) and the heads of all the US Orgs were then relieved of their duties. All these people were reportedly subjected to Committees of Evidence and then expelled.
From then on the wholesale declares must have started with consequences referred to earlier. Zegal, Dane Tops and the Sunday Times all refer to the San Francisco Mission Holders Conference of November 1982, and the consequences for the majority of Mission Holders and Field Auditors.
This extra detail on the events leading up to 1982 does not explain what was the motivation. Most sources indicate the need to boost revenue.
Zegal says the money was needed to pay Ron Hubbard for use of the copyright and trademarks. A figure of $85 million was supposedly quoted in Time Magazine.
Whether this amount was accurate or whether the money was ever paid, we do not know. What is evident is that money was constantly linked to the allegations of technical abuses in the accusations and declares.
If money was the why, we still have the question of who. Dane Tops maintains that there is a hidden management group who were directing these events from behind the scenes. The general belief is that the visible leaders emerging from the ranks of the CMO would not have the ability or skill in their late 20's and early 30's to have pulled off this operation without some direction from outside or above.
All that was visible was a group of strident young Sea Org members who had been filled with fiery indignation about the adulteration c technology and financial misappropriation. Some of these were rapidly promoted from quite junior positions and sent out to local Orgs o Commodores Messenger Organisation missions to root out evidence misdemeanour.
These were followed in 1983 by missions on behalf of the Religious Technology Corporation (RTC). Their aim was to tighten up control their exclusive rights to use the trademarks of Dianetics and Scientology and exclusive control over the copyright of all Hubbard's works. Use an control of these trademarks and copyright meant of course that they alone could derive income from them.
There now started a purging of all materials from the Church that were not exclusively written by Hubbard. Among the casualties were Scientology Ann Arbor and the Ruth Minshull publications. There were now no longer available through Church outlets and rapidly went out of print. There was a large scale reissuing of selected LRH Bulletins that had been written over the years. Mostly these were selected because they supported the current management style. Bulletins inconsistent with the new view were cancelled, with the claim that they had been written by persons other than Ron Hubbard
There was now a noticeable increase in the prominence given to 'LRH' in the Church publications, In the past Hubbard had always been revered by Church Members and staff alike on the basis of respect for his perception and dedication to the work of the movement. With a few exceptions this had remained at the level of admiration and respect for another human being. As explained earlier the subtle transfer of the person Ron Hubbard to the impersonal and immortal entity LRH was a way of dealing with the problem of succession. There had been Crown Princes in the past. Being number two and waiting quietly for a person of great stature to relinquish power is both difficult and dangerous.
These successors had always failed to achieve the succession and the latest casualty had been David Mayo. The RTC admitted that he had been given the job of safeguarding technical standards and further developing the tech to even higher OT levels after Hubbard's death.
However, that did not protect him from being declared. There are detailed claims about the specific reasons why David Mayo had to be discredited on the Zegal tapes. Nonetheless, it was obviously politic to remove him from post. If he became a well-known respected authority on the technology in his own right, he would be a threat to the monopoly gained with Hubbard's trademarks and copyright. With Mayo out of the way, it has been possible to project Hubbard's standing out of reach of any future successor.
But where was Hubbard while all this was happening. We are told on the Zegal tapes that he had become a total recluse in the late seventies.
He had been cited as a defendant in a number of legal cases against the Church. Because Hubbard claimed not to be involved with the Church, he was obliged to keep well away. He was effectively separated from his wife, Mary Sue, who was active in running the Guardians Office up to 1981, and who was reportedly under FBI surveillance.
It is reported by Zegal that Hubbard was moving around the West Coast with a small retinue and that his health was failing. On the other hand we know he was not doing nothing. The technical work done on revising the Bridge and redefinition of Clear in 1981 must have involved him, though it would have been in conjunction with David Mayor and others.
Hubbard had also returned to writing Science Fiction. In 1980 he published 'Battlefield Earth'. This book has been given a good critical reception by experts of that genre and is widely believed to have been written by him.
It would have been understandable if after many years working to build-up the Church he had decided to leave it and its members to sort themselves out. He would be entitled to say that he had provided the tools and it was now up to others to use them as best they could.
Then we have the controversy over RJ38. RJ stands for Ron's Journals. There were a recorded tape which Hubbard produced periodically to update members of the Church on his thinking and doings.
In 1983 RJ38 appeared and it was subtitled 'The Proof'.
The substance of the tape was a catalogue of the successes of the new regime and damning condemnation of their predecessors. The style and delivery was ponderous and many of the statistics transparently inflated. It was greeted with horror by most Scientologists.
The voice on the tape is sufficiently different to cause doubt about whether it really is Ron Hubbard's. Two groups of opinions have emerged.
One is that he is dead and that it is an imposter on the tape. The other is that it is Ron Hubbard but he has been tricked into recording these optimistic statements in ignorance of the true situation.
Most long term Scientologists would very much prefer the first theory to the second.
CHAPTER FOURTEEN THE EMERGENCE OF INDEPENDENT SCIENTOLOGY
It is difficult to overstate the shock and bewilderment of the people who suddenly found themselves outside the Church. Many had spent most of their adult lives working to make Scientology better known and to deliver the benefits it promised. Now in middle life they were suddenly discarded and out of work in a world which would hardly recognise their skills.
By and large they did not accept that they had done anything wrong enough to justify their expulsion. What they did not know was how many other people it had happened to. Slowly word started to get about of the extent of the damage Once this happened groups of expelled Scientologists gradually came together and started to rehabilitate themselves.
A number of Missions and field auditors slowly resurfaced under new colours. In one instance a group in Australia tried to call itself the Reformed Church of Scientology. The courts upheld the claim of infringement of trademark and they had to change their name. The vigilance of the RTC ensured that groups and missions found it safer to avoid any featuring of Scientology or Dianetic names, although they were in fact delivering the same services.
There were a lot of very experienced auditors and case supervisors now on the outside who had come together both to patch each other up and then help other casualties. In due course some of these set themselves up on a commercial footing to deliver the range of services previously available exclusively from the Orgs and Missions of the Church.
They found they were able to be viable at far lower prices than the Church was now charging.
The image of these independent groups delivering Scientology and Dianetic services was usually much less religious than that of the Church.
The emphasis was put instead on improving the ability level of the individual. Names started to appear like the Centre for Personal Enhancement, The Clear Mind Mission, and The Health and Ability Centre.
Probably the largest group is the Advanced Ability Centre in Santa Barbara, California. This formed around David Mayo and is probably the leading force in the independent movement. They provide advanced auditor training and technical advice to independent groups all over the world.
A variety of magazines and newsletters have sprung up to explain and promote the position of the Independents, Their letter columns provided the opportunity for many Scientologists to express their own personal views publicly, which had never been possible for them within the Church. The main UK publication, though it circulates throughoUt the world, is 'Reconnection'. By its title however it proclaims that its readership is largely among disconnected or inactive Scientologists. None of these magazines could be expected to recruit new people to the subject or are even likely to be comprehensible to the uninitiated.
There has been considerable interchange of help and ideas between the various Independent groups but no move to join up in any formal way.
Perhaps this is because of the natural fear of losing the freedom they now have to a centralised controlling structure similar to that operated by the Church.
The initial enthusiasm generated by those Scientologists who had fallen out with the Church did create a very heady and exciting atmosphere within the Independent movement. Whether this goodwill and cooperation will continue and be able to hold together a loose federation is in some doubt. Already signs of differing views can be detected. These are fallen out with the Church did create a very heady and exciting atmosphere within the Independent movement. Whether this goodwill and cooperation will continue and be able to hold together a loose federation is in some doubt, Already signs of differing views can be detected. These are particularly obvious in relation to future expansion and tactics for dealing with the Church.
The Church has remained implacably hostile to those it expelled in 1982 and those who have supported them. The Church usually describes the Independent delivery centres as 'Squirrel Groups'. It accuses them of short-cutting and adulterating the laid down processes and procedures for delivering services and training auditors. It claims that only the Church delivery centres, and those bodies it authorises, are both legally entitled to deliver Scientology services and training and can be trusted to do it 'standardly'.
The Church is determined to stamp out the Independent Groups, despite its major contribution to their having come into existence. It aims to gain a legally enforced monopoly on the delivery of Scientology services and the training of auditors. Initially it went to law for Injunctions to stop the individual Independent groups. The courts however seemed to have been unwilling to grant such blanket suppression prior to cases being heard.
The Church regards itself as entitled to use active harassment tactics in the course of collecting evidence. It made use of private investigators for visible surveillance which also aimed to exert a degree of intimidation.
So intrusive did this become that in one case that the California Superior Court issued an injunction to stop the Church, the RTC and their investigators from harassing the AAC Santa Barbara. Under its provisions these parties may not go within 5 yards of the premises of the AAC Santa Barbara for a period of 3 years.
The Independents are not however able to claim that they have completely clean hands'. In November 19E3, three of the most prominent Independent Scientologists in the UK went to the Advanced Org in Copenhagen and fraudulently obtained the NOTS (NED for OT's) materials. They did this by masquerading as Sea Org Members. As a result their leader was jailed briefly in Denmark and a case brought against all three by the Church in the UK. This awarded damages to the Church for theft but has not supported their claim to a monopoly of the use of the stolen documents. The Church has appealed.
Most recently the Church has intensified its legal activity against the Independents with a Writ in the United States District Court for the Central District of California. The problem for the Church has been that such a fragmented group as the Independents are difficult to pin down for prosecution. It has solved this by citing up to 100 Defendents, not all of them yet named. The first few named individuals were the three who undertook the alleged theft from the Copenhagen Advanced Org. Also included on the list are the AAC Centres in Scotland, East Grinstead and California (in that order!).
The complaint by the Church includes Racketeering; False Description of Origin; Receipt and Concealment of Stolen Property; Statutory Unfair Competition; Breach of Trust Breach of Contract; and Trade Secret Misappropriation. The Church has obviously launched a vehicle for a major legal battle that it is prepared to pursue to the highest level. By leaving open the list of Defendents it can add other individuals and delivery centres that may emerge and that the Church sees as a threat to its monopoly.
Unfortunately the process of law is slow, even in the United States.
It is unlikely that a final judgement will be given (without further appeals) in less than 5 years. The cost of fighting a case lasting that long is of course very high. The Church obviously believes that it can generate the funds to pay the costs of prosecuting such a major undertaking. The Independents however can have no such certainty as virtually all its legal costs will have to be paid for out of contributions made for that purpose.
While nobody can make reliable predictions about the legal outcome, the likelihood is that the Church will not get legal support for its monopoly claim. However, if the Independents fail to fight the case up through Courts through lack of funds, the Church will win its case and legal monopoly by default.
The income sources of the Independent movement are limited to revenue from auditing and training. Firstly they are anxious to keep their charges affordable and realistic. This is to show that they do not have the same financial motivation as the Church for doing the work that they do. It means however that they do not have the resources that the Church can allocate to fighting legal battles.
Secondly the Independent groups have relied largely for income on the victims of the purges and those who felt unable to go along with developments in the Church. Mostly they operate therefore among a relatively small number of committed Scientologists. This is obviously a finite market. One indication of the difficulty of generating a steady flow of traffic is the fate of the UK's most prestigious Independent delivery point. This was opened on a grand scale in a castle in Aberdeenshire early in 1984. By the end of the year it found it could not cover its overheads and has relocated in less prestigious premises in Edinburgh.
There are many inactive Scientologists who have stopped their auditing services or training progress in response to the recent upheavals.
These people are described by both sides as 'sitting on the fence'.
Comparatively few of these have moved into the Independent field.
Arguably there is no such thing as an ex-Scientologist. Once one has perceived the gains and spiritual certainty that can be obtained from the technology, one can never close down completely one's awareness of the further benefits it could give one.
Most of these people are therefore in the market for a return to Scientology. However relatively few have actively committed themselves to the Independents. This would be in part because the Independents may not be a long term phenomenon and the Church's stance is that anybody going to a breakaway group for auditing services would have great difficulty getting back into the Church at a later date. Despite the incentive of prices for auditing at the Independent groups being only 10% to 20% of Church prices, many people are still unwilling to commit themselves.
Even if all or most of these uncommitted people come off the fence onto the side of the Independents, it is still doubtful if there are enough of them to provide a healthy level of growth. The Independents therefore need to address the problem of bringing new people to an understanding of Scientology and the gains that can be made from it. They have the same difficulty as the Church has of communicating effectively with those who know nothing of the subject. Without a steady flow of new people however, the Independent groups will not generate the volume to keep their technical personnel fully employed. This will lead to their dispersion and put their ability to deliver Standard Tech in jeopardy. Unless they fir a new key to effective recruitment of new people then the possibility their gradual disappearance is very real.
They would not be the first breakaway movement from mainstream Dianetics or Scientology to see their early high hopes fade away. There have been several waves of breakaway movements in the past. In the fifties there were many based on Dianetics, such as Humanics, E-Therapy and Synergetics. In the 1960's the most notable Scientology breakaway groups were Amprinistics, Deductivism and Abilitism. All these have either disappeared completely or have declined to minor followings by comparison to the Church of Scientology.
What are the chances that this breakaway movement can prosper when the others failed to make a lasting impact. One difference may be that the initiative this time came from the Church. Large numbers of experienced and qualified staff were expelled in one major purge. The perceived injustice of this will give a continuing motivation to prove the Church wrong and themselves right. The vociferous claims by the Church that the Independents are adulterating the technology will stiffen their resolve to keep it 'standard'.
A further factor is the sustained aggressive response towards them by the Church. This continuing threat may give further strength to their purpose. Some smaller groups or individuals may give in to legal pressure and agree to stop delivering Scientology services. Others may move themselves out of danger of attack by switching to other therapies or philosophies as a 'logical' progression from Scientology. The major delivery groups are more likely to be moved towards a more formal association than they had originally intended, for their own legal protection. Thus the Church may by its own actions be contributing to the chances of the survival of the Independent Scientologists.
Nevertheless the crucial factor in the successful development of the Independents is finding a formula for bringing completely new people to an awareness of what Scientology and Dianetics can do to improve their lives and well-being.
CHAPTER FIFTEEN THE CHURCH SINCE 1983
By mid '83 the purging within the Church was over and the knives were put away. The new management seems to have settled down to do the best job it can of getting the Church moving forward again. They have a lot going against them however. First there are fewer competent or experienced staff to work with. The best people have been drawn into the centre in the UK, principally to Saint 11ill, to fill the gaps left by the purges. This has left the local Orgs with few experienced staff of any calibre.
Then there are the new pricing levels. The 5% monthly rises had been going on from 1982 until late 1984. The effect was to triple prices of auditing and training. It is arguable that these may have been underpriced before. However the effect on book prices is the most indicative of pricing levels. A slim hardback volume of about 100 pages had previously sold at about L5. With the compound rises its price reached nearly L20 by late 19841
The predictable result of these spiralling price rises was lower volume sales. The Church staff had always been trained to sell aggressively and Church members were familiar with being pestered with phone calls to buy their next service or come into the Org to discuss their next auditing action. During 1982 and 1983 the pressure exerted on members increased and caused a lot of bad feeling and further demotivated many already wavering Church members.
Members of the Church in the UK receive regular mailings from their local Org, Saint Hill Advanced Org, Copenhagen and Florida. During late 1983 and early 1984 this mail reached almost tidal proportions.
There has been some attempt to tidy up the pricing in 1985. Some book prices have been reduced. Special bulk discounts have been offered to people willing to commit themselves to large purchases of services Most notable of these is the 'I want to go to OT Club'.
Further discounts are now available to people willing to join the new 'International Association of Scientologists'. This form of membership replaces the old International Membership and automatically deprive previous Life Members of their membership. They will now be required to rejoin on the new terms.
As mentioned earlier, the Church has returned to its litigious ways In addition to the major legal suits in England, Scotland and California against the AAC largely built around the theft of NOTs materials in Copenhagen there have been other local suits of delivery groups and field auditors. Its main aim is to eliminate all unauthorised use of Scientology and Dianetics materials, claiming this to be infringement of copyright
Throughout 1984the Church publicity machine continued to blame its troubles on the actions of those who were expelled or had subsequently left the Church. Although not given such prominence now, all references to breakaway groups or individuals are as 'squirrels' who are by definition adulterating the technology and undermining the work of the Church.
Representatives of the Church frequently try to discredit the people who are the visible leaders of splinter groups by word of mouth slanders.
These relate to their personal ethics, sexual activities and mental health.
This is known as 'Dead Agenting' in Scientology PR Terms. It means if you can discredit the person who is making a criticism, then the criticism will be disregarded.
The effect that all this has on the people on the sidelines is to convince them that the Church is not interested in repairing the damage. The Church may have had justifiable reason for purging itself of what it saw as damaging elements within its ranks. Many innocent people were however hurt in the process, some of whom may have been willing to come back if some gesture of reconcilliation had been offered. Outsiders interpret this as indicating that the Church is really more interested in maintaining a narrow base for financial gain rather than achieving a broadly based movement for the benefit of mankind.
Many previously active members of the Church will have decided to hold back while hostilities continue. Some might have been willing to pay the current prices for services if they knew this money was to be invested in further expansion. They may object to seeing it used for funding legal costs and other wasteful activity, and therefore do nothing. It is possible that the Church is actually losing more than it gains by maintaining this conflict atmosphere.
The Church is now making efforts to increase the flow of new members in at the bottom. The main emphasis for this is on 1950's style Dianetics auditing. This has been done by promoting sales of Dianetics- Modern Science of Mental Health and offering a trial block of 5 hours auditing at an advantageous price. While some success may have been achieved here, difficulties are encountered in moving interested new people onto the higher priced Scientology auditing and training services.
The major problem that still afflicts the Church in the UK is a gulf
When Hubbard was obviously there as leader of the movement, relevant new ideas were emerging and being developed. Much of this material was barely digested at the time and the Church now finds it convenient to re-issue both administrative and technical bulletins that suit its current purposes. This selective use of Hubbard's material is done in such a way as to imply that he is still at the helm, although the copyright dates show that the bulletins were usually from the 50's and 60's. The Church cannot promote new thinking as this would undermine the pre- eminence of the figure of LRH. Although there is a tremendous fund of material to draw on, a certain sterility seems to come from the lack of an up-to-date perception of how to apply these ideas today.
Attention is concentrated on getting members who are already Clear on to the higher levels of the Bridge, up to OT VIII. There is development work going on in the Church to get the next OT levels ready for release in the name of Ron Hubbard. However, as the basic research work for these involved David Mayo, it is possible that the Advanced Ability Centre may have these available before the Church. Development work has taken place in new areas and most recently the Church has produced the 'False Purpose Rundown'.
between the highly committed staff of the Church and the world outside.
The staff live on very little and are kept busy six and a half days a week in their jobs. Thus they do not have a chance to have much contact with people and issues outside. They have no realistic idea of the costs of the services they are trying to sell. Many of them are virtually monastics and regard money as a necessary evil which they have disowned on the way to their personal salvation.
The Church claims to have the sole right to extend the knowledge and use of Scientology throughout the world. How likely is it to achieve a widespread of acceptance of these ideas in the foreseeable future? On present showing the chances are not high. To do so the Church would have to change Scientology from being a narrow cult based upon a small number of highly committed members to a genuine popular movement.
Firstly it has the self-imposed disadvantage of being called a Church when it appears to the popular perception to be something else. Quite apart from whether Scientology qualifies as a religion, there are two practical reasons why it became a Church. The first was to get respectability and freedom from attacks by the medical and psychiatric vested interests, including some government bodies. Secondly it gave it certain financial advantages in the United States and some other countries.
The emphasis on describing itself as a Church is probably a little unproductive today. It may still have some financial advantages but being a Church gains little respect or interest from the man in the street in the 1980's.
It may have been the obvious step in the 1950's to avoid interference from the establishment but the climate now is different. The medical profession is no longer held in the unquestioning awe that it was. Medical Psychiatry as practised in NHS is also recognised to be failing to cure or prevent increasing levels of mental illness. Experimental Psychology is even opening up to some of the ideas and methods that Scientology has been advocating for years.
What is known as alternative medicine is now far more favourably considered by the population at large and is even popular with the media.
The Church should probably put more priority on making available those parts of the technology that help the people afflicted with mental stress and chronic physical conditions. By helping to alleviate such conditions as migraines, allergies, sinusitus, lethargy, anxiety and stress, Dianetics and Scientology can establish creditability quickly and demonstrate its effectiveness. It can help people at a practical level to get back into control of their lives and achieve some peace of mind.
The other big difficulty that the Church has is its own staff and management. They are by and large dedicated and honest people but their very dedication creates problems in interacting with the man in the street.
The concept of the Sea Org was a tough and disciplined central core of people to drive the Church forward. There is a lot to be grateful for in of their lives and achieve some peace of mind.
management. They are by and large dedicated and honest people but their The concept of the Sea Org was a tough and disciplined central core of people to drive the Church forward. There is a lot to be grateful for in the achievements of the Sea Org over the last fifteen years but their personnel have little or no credibility with the ordinary people from whom they wish to recruit new Scientologists.
Even the non-Sea Org staff members are so coloured by the para- military style of the Church that they have the same inability to win converts among the general public. Recruitment is slow and laborious.
At present the recruitment by the average Org of one new committed Scientologist per week would be considered brilliantly successful. Few commercial organisations could remain viable at such a low level of recruitment.
Large scale acceptance of Scientology and Dianetics in the future can only be achieved by building bridges back to world outside. The Church seems to have operated hitherto on a narrow base of members who were willing to commit themselves, and most of their time and money, to Scientology. It has been critical of those who were unwilling to make this level of commitment and usually ended up antagonising them.
The movement of Scientology and Dianetics now operates in a much more liberal climate than the 50;s and 60's. Far more people are prepared to have an open mind about Scientology but they need to be permitted to go at their own speed. It has usually been implied in the Church in the past that anything less than 24 hours a day commitment is not enough.
Many can and want to contribute on a more modest scale and their contributions are of value. It will be necessary to change attitudes within the Church to make it clear that less committed contributions are valuable and welcome. It was these contributions of effort from ordinary people that was one of the ingredients of the success of Saint Hill Foundation Org when Ron Hubbard ran it.
Today the pressing need is for large numbers of field groups where new people can learn about Dianetics and basic Scientology from people who they can identify with. These groups represent much more realistic entry points than the austere Orgs where new people at the moment are likely to be frightened off by the youthful intensity of the staff there.
From the people thus recruited some will in due course go on to the higher levels of spiritual gain available through the Orgs and Advanced Orgs. However those who do not wish to advance to those higher levels should still be appreciated and cherished as valuable members of the movement.
The institutional paranoia also needs to be dismantled. Fear of enemies and attacks have encouraged the defensive posture of 'He who is not with us is against us!' Too many people have been put into pressure situations to ascertain their loyalty and commitment to the movement.
In many cases that has caused the potential supporter to become inactive, and maybe later a critic.
What are chances of the Church changing its style sufficiently to bring about these changes? To do so it would have to review some of the practices which were laid down in Hubbard's Admin Tech. While the principles of most of the Admin Tech are sound, they tend to be followed slavishly within the Church and with little judgement or discretion. To modify them would however mean questioning the written work of Ron Hubbard. This is not a likely occurrence in the near future.
To bring about the necessary changes the Church would also need to become a little more democratic. Most of the people who were expelled or left the Church were mature people who came to the conclusion they could not get their voices heard. They did not feel that unquestioning acceptance of military style discipline was vital for success. At present no mechanism exists for upward passage of ideas on Church management or strategy. The authoritarian style of the Sea Org is probably too well established to allow this to happen for the foreseeable future.
CHAPTER SIXTEEN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE
In trying to assess where Scientology stands at the moment and may go in the future, it is necessary to distinguish three separate elements.
First the body of ideas and practices currently covered by the headings Scientology and Dianetics. Then there is the discoverer and evolver of these ideas, L Ron Hubbard. Thirdly there is the organisation that was developed to promote the subjects, the Church of Scientology. It cannot be stated too often that these are not the same things and they should be assessed and judged separately.
First then let us consider the subjects of Dianetics and Scientology.
On a number of occasions Ron Hubbard indicated that the areas he was studying are far from new. Indeed if one is examining the fields of knowingness and certainty, the findings cannot be new. Many so called 'primitive' societies have much deeper certainties about life and existence than we have in the West. Our own tradition of Greek-Roman-Christian philosophy has consistently discredited ideas from other sources as unenlightened and irrational.
What could be said to be new about Dianetics and Scientology was that it evolved a methodology to enable the individual to increase their awareness and to discover these certainties for himself. The methods o auditing and studying which have emerged have proven effective for significant numbers of people.
The growth of the worldwide following of Scientology over the last 30 years is one indicator that the ideas and therapies of the subject meet a widely felt need. There are plenty of documented examples and living proofs of the relief from suffering and beneficial changes that Dianetics and Scientology have brought to many individuals. That is not to say that Scientology should be seen as a cure-all to be force fed to the population of the world. The most that any new movement should have in a free society is the opportunity to present its case without obstruction. People should then make up their own minds about whether it is of any value to them.
Few new ideas have gained acceptance without resistance from the established institutions. In fact, this very resistance is part of the proving process which kills off more doubtful new ideas and lets only the most virile survive.
Although the birth of Dianetics and Scientology may have been messy and wasteful, it cannot now be suppressed. Enough people have perceived its relevance and application to the needs of the twentieth century to ensure its continued survival.
It should not be assumed however that it is without competition.
There are other ways to spiritual enlightenment and freedom Many who have become disillusioned with the way Scientology has been administered have found consolation and made further progress in other practices, The future widespread acceptance of Dianetics and Scientology is by no means certain. It could remain the province of a relatively small number of committed followers, like many other fringe religions, or it could become a world movement with immense potential for the health and happiness of mankind.
Next we come to Hubbard himself. In a book called 'The Hidden Story of Scientology' a non-Scientologist journalist and writer called Omar V, Garrison attempted to take an independent view of the movement, The book is a little dated now, being published in 1974. He says early in the book however that in considering Ron Hubbard we are undoubtedly looking at a genius. This statement may be difficult for his critics to accept but most people who know Hubbard's work would have been happy to have produced in their lifetime one corner of one of the many subjects that he developed.
Genuises are not the same thing as Saints. Many of the great minds of history were also flawed characters. Characteristics that are strongly visible in his make-up are imperiousness egocentricity impatience and arrogance. There were probably other features that his admirers would prefer to gloss over. Minds capable of great leaps of insight are also capable of great follies. Some of the claims that he made about himself and some that the Church has made about him will probably be disproved in the future. Regrettably he must also pass through the inevitable period of criticism and eclipse that most philosophers and writers are subject to immediately after their death. In due course a balanced assessment of
Quite apart from the exaggerated image that the Church may have projected of Hubbard it cannot be denied that he has had tremendous success as the populariser of the ideas of Dianetics and Scientology. In 1952 it must have looked as if the creative work that had gone into Dianetics was to be dissipated into a multitude of fragmented groups, all developing in different directions.
The achievement of pulling back the initiative and building up an organisation to develop and control the use of Scientology and Dianetic is impressive. The unfortunate need for an organisation and structure can be seen when we look at those derivative and breakaway groups that have faded away. Where also are the current practitioners of the discoveries of Freud, the post-Freudians and even Carl Jung.
In the sixties Ron Hubbard applied part of his energies to developing the structure for delivering the whole progression of individual gain through the prototype 'Org' at Saint Hill. His success at this, but less evident success at holding the worldwide movement together, shows that he was probably better at developing something new than at keeping something old growing steadily.
For reasons which are only partly known to us, he stepped out of executive running of the Church in 1966. At this point it was probably the best opportunity for more pedestrian intellects to take over and consolidate the management of the Church. This may well have started to happen in the late 60's.
Ron Hubbard may have intended to go off on his boat and leave them to get on with it, but it didn't turn out like that. During the time on the ships he revealed another talent, that of a management theorist. Although his work on management is difficult to read until one has mastered the terminology, it is probably in the same league as Peter Drucker or Wilfred Brown. Although his theory is brilliant and highly workable, he was not the ideal person to operate it. In addition he wrote so much of it that it is inclined to overwhelm inexperienced managers.
During the time on the ships the cult of personality probably first got out of hand. The enormous charisma of the man and the adulation of the young Sea Org members probably led to the first whiff of fanaticism.
The newly trained Sea Org personnel would leave the ship with a firm belief in the inability of Ron the man to be wrong.
With hindsight we could say that Hubbard should have been aware of the danger and prevented it. Probably his authoritarian style inclined him to believe that these dedicated young 'Storm Troopers' were the best hope for the movement to fulfil its promise. Brilliant as he was as a researcher and formulator of workable methodologies, he was not able or willing to play the political game necessary to get acceptance of new ideas. By belittling the established thinking and ridiculing its practitioners he encouraged a hostile climate which was bound to be resistant to his unconventional discoveries.
In the late seventies Ron saw some progress but not the success that he would have hoped for. We can only speculate on his action from then on. Perhaps he was content to bow out of further management involvement in the Church and concentrate on his technical development of the higher OT levels and writing 'Battlefield Earth'.
Whatever other information emerges about his activities, it cannot detract from the validity of the principles and techniques he developed and stood for. The laws of gravity cannot be called into question because of any personal failings Isaac Newton may have had. Each individual must judge if Hubbard's findings are valid for them and do their best to come to terms with his human failings.
Finally we come to the Church of Scientology. It is all too easy to blame the Church and its management exclusively for the troubles that Scientology has experienced. Mostly the Church is run by dedicated and honest people who are willing to give up a normal life in the hope of bringing about a better world and a happier future for mankind.
The excesses and failures of the Church over most of the last 20 years no more invalidates the principles or purposes it was founded to uphold than corrupt Popes or the sale of Indulgences invalidated the principles of Christianity.
As indicated in the previous chapter, the Church may be making certain strategic mistakes. These revolve around trying to push a relatively small number of people up through the higher levels of the Bridge rather than giving attention to building a widely based popular movement. Also continuing emphasis on elimination of so called 'squirrel groups' is diverting much of its attention and resources from the task of establishing communication with the mainstream population.
Whatever the merits of the Church s case against the Independents it is unlikely to derive much gain from it. In real terms the benefits it would achieve from closing the Independents would be small. Few of the Independent Scientologists or their adherents would be likely to rejoin the Church in the foreseeable future In addition the continuing conflict climate reduces the chances of voluntary return by the many disillusioned members who have become inactive.
The low number of new recruits brought in by the Church probably accounts for their fear of the Independents. They could expect a committed new member who makes his way all the way up the Bridge to spend 100,000 pounds or dollars over the course of say 10 years. In view of the very small numbers willing and able to undertake to commit themselves on these terms, the Church has to guard jealously its few committed followers.
For both the Church of Scientology and the Independent Scientologists, the crucial battle to be fought is not with each other in the courts. They should be applying their energies in the everyday world, among the many people who sense there must be more to life than material existence.
It is one of the many tragic ironies in this sad tale that Ron Hubbard has bequeathed the Church most of the technology to do this. The principles he identified relating to Reality levels, Communication and Gradients all have applications in this area. Anyone who has done the first major course in a Scientology Academy can tell you how technology gets lost!
Comments on 'The Road to Total Freedom-A Sociological Analysis of Scientology' by Roy Wallis Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. 1976.
In this very well researched analysis Dr. Roy Wallis assembled a wealth of information about the early years of the Church. He also collected the opinions and experiences of many who had broken with the Church up to 1975.
In carrying out a 'sociological analysis' of the development of Dianetics and Scientology, Dr. Wallis comes up with a number of interesting ideas. These may explain to the confused outsider (and some insiders) why the Church has come to operate as it does.
One of these ideas is that Dianetics emerged briefly from what he terms the 'Cultic Mileu'. This is the shadowy area of fringe therapies and practices based on ideas ranging from the mystical to the occult. The ideas within this area are fluid and are constantly being adapted and modified by their supporters. Numerical support is not large for any one set of beliefs and further limited by adherents moving from one idea to another as they become attracted by something new. From time to time an idea or methodology may emerge from the cultic mileu and be taken up by significant numbers of the mainstream population. Usually this happens only briefly. Disillusionment and dissension then set it and the idea is left with only a small following and returns to the cultic mileu. This is what Wallis maintains happened with Dianetics in the early 50's.
Wallis suggests that as a reaction to this, the founder of Dianetics.
Ron Hubbard, made a deliberate change in strategy for the successor to Dianetics. This was to develop Scientology as a 'Sect'. Wallis defines a sect as a committed grouping of individuals who give strong support to one idea or group of related ideas and who accept one individual leader as a focus of authority. He compares this process with earlier movements to have established a centralised authoritarian structures, such as Christian Science and the Unity School of Christianity.
Another interesting idea to emerge is that the attacks on the Churches of Scientology by governments, media and medical establishments suit the Church s strategy very well. This hostile climate enables it to justify its centralised control on truth. Questioning of the principles or practice of the Church can be discouraged because of its weakening effect on the movement in the face of attacks from outside. High priority is given to solidarity and faith in the wisdom of the charismatic 'leader'.
The continual claiming of overt and covert attacks on the Church also enables it to maintain strict internal discipline on its staff and field members. This takes the form of 'heavy ethics' and leads to periodic purges of those staff and members who have stepped out of line. These dismissals usually include claims that these dissidents were supporting a conspiracy to bring down the Church from within.
Wallis also portrays the Church as a 'bureaucracy'. The Church maintains large numbers of staff in unwieldy bureaucratic structures. Little authority is devolved from the centre, great reliance is put on written rules and procedures and initiative is discouraged by fear of heavy penalties.
Thus most of the ingredients exist for an inward looking bureaucracy which most outsiders find very insensitive.
In addition to these interesting ideas, Roy Wallis has also provided a very comprehensive commentary on the Church's interaction with the outside world in his chapter 'Relations with State and Society'. This seemed very fair to both sides. He suggests that vested interests have probably combined to make a scapegoat of the Church for the developments in society that they are not able to control, or even understand. This chapter also includes graphic accounts of the 'dirty tricks' tactics of certain agents of the Church to discredit or embarrass its critics.
As a sociological analysis and carefully researched early history, this book is extremely illuminating. On the matter of whether many individuals have gained significant or lasting benefit from Dianetics and Scientology, Wallis remains sceptical. As to whether the principles and therapies developed and refined by Ron Hubbard have been or could be of benefit to our society, his opinion is of course as valuable as that of any other individual.
APPENDIX B - SUGGESTED READING AND REFERENCE WORKS
There is a considerable amount of reading material on the subject of Scientology. Anyone wishing to make an extensive study of the movement is recommended to read 'The Road to Total Freedom' by Roy Wallis - Heinemann Education Books 1976. Although it is now out of print, library copies are available.
This book covers the historical and sociological background to the emergence of Dianetics, a detailed history of the early 50's and an outline of the development of the Church up to 1970. It also contains a very extensive list of further reading.
For anyone wishing to introduce themselves to the subject without the burden of too much reading, the best starting point is still 'Dianetics - Modern Science of Mental Health' published for the Church of Scientology by New Era Publications, Copenhagen. As this is quite a long book some readers get disheartened. Part way through it may be helpful to read two shorter works Dianetics Evolution of a Science' and 'Dianetics - The Original Thesis'. Both are by Ron Hubbard and published by New Era Publications.
Moving on to Scientology, the best starting point would be the introductory books assembled from Hubbards writings, such as 'Scientology A New Slant on Life', 'The Creation of Human Ability', 'The Fundamentals of Thought' and 'The Problems of Work'. Also very useful is a self-help manual called 'Self-Analysis'. This contains auditing procedures one can do on oneself and has a very useful introductory section.
Two other useful guides to the practical application of Scientology to everyday life are books by Ruth Minshull. One is 'Miracles for Breakfast' about how one can apply some of these principles in bringing up children.
The other is 'How To Choose Your People'. This book helps you to spot people who are likely to upset you and thus enable you to avoid their negative influence. These books were printed in the United States and are now unfortunately out of print. Some libraries have copies, or can obtain them. The publisher was Scientology Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, (not a person but a place) Michigan. If you are unable to get a copy most Scientologists would be willing to lend you their copy.
Mention has been made of 'The Hidden Story of Scientology' by Omar V. Garrison - Arlington Books, London, 1974. This book has been described as pro-Scientology. More accurately it seems not to have set out with the obvious intention of being anti-Scientology. Although it is now a bit out of-date, it provides useful background on the conflict between the Church and the psychotherapy establishment and various government bodies in the sixties. It also contains a limited but useful series of references to relevant professional journals and government documents.
A number of audiocassettes that give useful data are available. First one should listen to Ron Hubbard's own. 'The Story of Dianetics and Scientology' was a lecture given by him in 1958. It is available from the Church or most Scientologists would lend you a copy.
A number of other tapes have emerged that give additional information on both Ron Hubbard and the Church. Because their content is mostly not flattering to the popular image of Hubbard or the doings of the Church, they are denounced by the Church. Few people can authenticate their accuracy. The listener must therefore make up his own mind how likely the events related in these tapes are to be true in the light of his own knowledge of what has happened.
The main tapes are the Zegal Tapes, a series of three tapes by Jon Zegal and The Flynn Tapes, by an American lawyer acting for some o the Independent Scientologists. There is also 'The Nibs Tape'. Nibs was the pet name of Ronald de Wolf, the estranged son of Ron Hubbard by his first marriage. At the time of writing copies of these tapes can be obtained from Brian Parker, 69 Queens Road, East Grinstead, W. Sussex, England.
A useful and mostly objective summary of the most recent events in Church in the United States appeared in the Sunday Times Colour Magazine on 28th October 1984.
The most recent addition to the sources of information is a 'Time Track' or chronological record of the documented events relating to Hubbard's life and the development of the movement. This is being assembled by Jon Atack and details can be obtained from 'Reconnection' at the address given in Appendix C.
APPENDIX C - CONTACT POINTS
To avoid a long list of addresses the main contact points only are given. An approach to any of these should provide up-to-date information on the nearest group, mission or source of published material.
Church of Scientology, Saint Hill Manor, East Grinstead, West Sussex. 0342-24571.
Advanced Ability Centre, 52 West Street, East Grinstead, West Sussex. 0342-21752.
Reconnection - Journal of the Independent Scientologists, 2 The Close, Copyhold Road, East Grinstead, West Sussex.
Advanced Ability Centre, 39 Shandon Crescent, Edinburgh, Scotland.
International Flag Services Organisation Inc. P.O. Box 23751, Tampa, Florida. 33630-3751.
Advanced Ability Centre, 1280 Coast Village Circle, Santa Barbara, Calif 93108. This group produce their own journal six times a year - copies and subscription details from the address above.
Church of Scientology, Jernbanegade 6, 1608 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Independent Scientology, Per Schiottz, Association of Applied Philosophy, Hjortekaersvej 192, 2800 Lyngvy, Denmark.
Church of Scientology, 201 Castleragh, Sydney NSW Australia 2000.
Independent Scientology, John Mace, 29 Norma Road, Myaree 6154 West Australia.
Church of Scientology, Security Building, 95 Commissioner St Johannesburge SA 2001.
Independent Scientology, Regina Dennison, PO Box 30311, Point, Durban, 4069.
APPENDIX D - Open letter to the Church of Scientology *Gentlemen,
In writing this book I am well aware that most books written about Scientology without the support of the Church have been attacked by it and frequently subject to legal action.
Despite this I have felt impelled to try to compile an unbiased summary of the factual development of the subject and the Church, from the information sources available.
Where this has involved going beyond the histories published by the Church, I have attempted to quote all my published or recorded sources.
Where there is no reference to source it is because I have assembled this information from personal observation and talking to a great many staff and members of the Church over many years.
I have not attempted to pass judgment on the Church or the subjects of Scientology or Dianetics. By providing an unbiased summary of the relevant facts I hope to let readers do that for themselves.
If there are significant factual gaps or inaccuracies I would be pleased to know about them and will incorporate any substantiated corrections into any future editions.
Any opinions that are expressed are my own and clearly identifiable as such. I consider myself up to this time to have been a loyal and dedicated member of the Church.
With best wishes for the task ahead.
Eric Townsend May 1985 THE SAD TALE OF SCIENTOLOGY
By Eric Townsend Few people have not heard of Scientology but very few can tell you anything about it!
The aim of this book is to separate the ideas of Scientology from the activities of the organisation that was set up to promote the subject, the Church of Scientology.
Scientology covers a group of discoveries and therapies which can help people to get on better and live happier lives. These ideas have at times been pushed into the background by the controversial doings of the Church of Scientology.
This book aims to help people with friends or relatives involved with Scientology and who want some unbiased information to enable them to make an assessment of this subject for themselves.
Eric Townsend was brought up as a Roman Catholic but rejected formal religious beliefs while at University. In middle life he found a need for greater spiritual awareness and fulfillment. After trying a number of avenues he found that Scientology most adequately filled this requirement.
While he has had immense spiritual and practical benefits from Scientology, he does not feel that it is the right way for everyone. However, under-informed public opinion, plus sensationalist press coverage means that many people may reject the subject on inadequate information.
His aim in writing this book is to provide a brief and balanced summary of how the subject has developed. By doing this in a way that tries to be fair to all sides, he hopes that the open- minded reader will have enough information to make a rational decision about whether to take their interest in the subject further or not.
ANIMA PUBLISHING, PO Box 10, Bramhall, Stockport, Cheshire SK7 2QF, England ISBN 0-9510471-0-8